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FAQ 65KB

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  1. _ _ ____ _
  2. ___| | | | _ \| |
  3. / __| | | | |_) | |
  4. | (__| |_| | _ <| |___
  5. \___|\___/|_| \_\_____|
  6. FAQ
  7. 1. Philosophy
  8. 1.1 What is cURL?
  9. 1.2 What is libcurl?
  10. 1.3 What is curl not?
  11. 1.4 When will you make curl do XXXX ?
  12. 1.5 Who makes curl?
  13. 1.6 What do you get for making curl?
  14. 1.7 What about CURL from curl.com?
  15. 1.8 I have a problem who do I mail?
  16. 1.9 Where do I buy commercial support for curl?
  17. 1.10 How many are using curl?
  18. 1.11 Why don't you update ca-bundle.crt
  19. 1.12 I have a problem who can I chat with?
  20. 1.13 curl's ECCN number?
  21. 1.14 How do I submit my patch?
  22. 1.15 How do I port libcurl to my OS?
  23. 2. Install Related Problems
  24. 2.1 configure doesn't find OpenSSL even when it is installed
  25. 2.1.1 native linker doesn't find OpenSSL
  26. 2.1.2 only the libssl lib is missing
  27. 2.2 Does curl work/build with other SSL libraries?
  28. 2.3 Where can I find a copy of LIBEAY32.DLL?
  29. 2.4 Does curl support SOCKS (RFC 1928) ?
  30. 3. Usage Problems
  31. 3.1 curl: (1) SSL is disabled, https: not supported
  32. 3.2 How do I tell curl to resume a transfer?
  33. 3.3 Why doesn't my posting using -F work?
  34. 3.4 How do I tell curl to run custom FTP commands?
  35. 3.5 How can I disable the Accept: */* header?
  36. 3.6 Does curl support ASP, XML, XHTML or HTML version Y?
  37. 3.7 Can I use curl to delete/rename a file through FTP?
  38. 3.8 How do I tell curl to follow HTTP redirects?
  39. 3.9 How do I use curl in my favorite programming language?
  40. 3.10 What about SOAP, WebDAV, XML-RPC or similar protocols over HTTP?
  41. 3.11 How do I POST with a different Content-Type?
  42. 3.12 Why do FTP specific features over HTTP proxy fail?
  43. 3.13 Why does my single/double quotes fail?
  44. 3.14 Does curl support Javascript or PAC (automated proxy config)?
  45. 3.15 Can I do recursive fetches with curl?
  46. 3.16 What certificates do I need when I use SSL?
  47. 3.17 How do I list the root dir of an FTP server?
  48. 3.18 Can I use curl to send a POST/PUT and not wait for a response?
  49. 3.19 How do I get HTTP from a host using a specific IP address?
  50. 3.20 How to SFTP from my user's home directory?
  51. 3.21 Protocol xxx not supported or disabled in libcurl
  52. 3.22 curl -X gives me HTTP problems
  53. 4. Running Problems
  54. 4.1 Problems connecting to SSL servers.
  55. 4.2 Why do I get problems when I use & or % in the URL?
  56. 4.3 How can I use {, }, [ or ] to specify multiple URLs?
  57. 4.4 Why do I get downloaded data even though the web page doesn't exist?
  58. 4.5 Why do I get return code XXX from a HTTP server?
  59. 4.5.1 "400 Bad Request"
  60. 4.5.2 "401 Unauthorized"
  61. 4.5.3 "403 Forbidden"
  62. 4.5.4 "404 Not Found"
  63. 4.5.5 "405 Method Not Allowed"
  64. 4.5.6 "301 Moved Permanently"
  65. 4.6 Can you tell me what error code 142 means?
  66. 4.7 How do I keep user names and passwords secret in Curl command lines?
  67. 4.8 I found a bug!
  68. 4.9 Curl can't authenticate to the server that requires NTLM?
  69. 4.10 My HTTP request using HEAD, PUT or DELETE doesn't work!
  70. 4.11 Why does my HTTP range requests return the full document?
  71. 4.12 Why do I get "certificate verify failed" ?
  72. 4.13 Why is curl -R on Windows one hour off?
  73. 4.14 Redirects work in browser but not with curl!
  74. 4.15 FTPS doesn't work
  75. 4.16 My HTTP POST or PUT requests are slow!
  76. 4.17 Non-functional connect timeouts on Windows
  77. 4.18 file:// URLs containing drive letters (Windows, NetWare)
  78. 4.19 Why doesn't curl return an error when the network cable is unplugged?
  79. 4.20 curl doesn't return error for HTTP non-200 responses!
  80. 4.21 Why is there a HTTP/1.1 in my HTTP/2 request?
  81. 5. libcurl Issues
  82. 5.1 Is libcurl thread-safe?
  83. 5.2 How can I receive all data into a large memory chunk?
  84. 5.3 How do I fetch multiple files with libcurl?
  85. 5.4 Does libcurl do Winsock initing on win32 systems?
  86. 5.5 Does CURLOPT_WRITEDATA and CURLOPT_READDATA work on win32 ?
  87. 5.6 What about Keep-Alive or persistent connections?
  88. 5.7 Link errors when building libcurl on Windows!
  89. 5.8 libcurl.so.X: open failed: No such file or directory
  90. 5.9 How does libcurl resolve host names?
  91. 5.10 How do I prevent libcurl from writing the response to stdout?
  92. 5.11 How do I make libcurl not receive the whole HTTP response?
  93. 5.12 Can I make libcurl fake or hide my real IP address?
  94. 5.13 How do I stop an ongoing transfer?
  95. 5.14 Using C++ non-static functions for callbacks?
  96. 5.15 How do I get an FTP directory listing?
  97. 5.16 I want a different time-out!
  98. 5.17 Can I write a server with libcurl?
  99. 5.18 Does libcurl use threads?
  100. 6. License Issues
  101. 6.1 I have a GPL program, can I use the libcurl library?
  102. 6.2 I have a closed-source program, can I use the libcurl library?
  103. 6.3 I have a BSD licensed program, can I use the libcurl library?
  104. 6.4 I have a program that uses LGPL libraries, can I use libcurl?
  105. 6.5 Can I modify curl/libcurl for my program and keep the changes secret?
  106. 6.6 Can you please change the curl/libcurl license to XXXX?
  107. 6.7 What are my obligations when using libcurl in my commercial apps?
  108. 7. PHP/CURL Issues
  109. 7.1 What is PHP/CURL?
  110. 7.2 Who wrote PHP/CURL?
  111. 7.3 Can I perform multiple requests using the same handle?
  112. 7.4 Does PHP/CURL have dependencies?
  113. ==============================================================================
  114. 1. Philosophy
  115. 1.1 What is cURL?
  116. cURL is the name of the project. The name is a play on 'Client for URLs',
  117. originally with URL spelled in uppercase to make it obvious it deals with
  118. URLs. The fact it can also be pronounced 'see URL' also helped, it works as
  119. an abbreviation for "Client URL Request Library" or why not the recursive
  120. version: "Curl URL Request Library".
  121. The cURL project produces two products:
  122. libcurl
  123. A free and easy-to-use client-side URL transfer library, supporting DICT,
  124. FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3,
  125. POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP.
  126. libcurl supports HTTPS certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading,
  127. Kerberos, SPNEGO, HTTP form based upload, proxies, cookies, user+password
  128. authentication, file transfer resume, http proxy tunneling and more!
  129. libcurl is highly portable, it builds and works identically on numerous
  130. platforms, including Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Darwin, HP-UX,
  131. IRIX, AIX, Tru64, Linux, UnixWare, HURD, Windows, Amiga, OS/2, BeOS, Mac
  132. OS X, Ultrix, QNX, OpenVMS, RISC OS, Novell NetWare, DOS, Symbian, OSF,
  133. Android, Minix, IBM TPF and more...
  134. libcurl is free, thread-safe, IPv6 compatible, feature rich, well
  135. supported and fast.
  136. curl
  137. A command line tool for getting or sending files using URL syntax.
  138. Since curl uses libcurl, curl supports the same wide range of common
  139. Internet protocols that libcurl does.
  140. We pronounce curl with an initial k sound. It rhymes with words like girl
  141. and earl. This is a short WAV file to help you:
  142. http://media.merriam-webster.com/soundc11/c/curl0001.wav
  143. There are numerous sub-projects and related projects that also use the word
  144. curl in the project names in various combinations, but you should take
  145. notice that this FAQ is directed at the command-line tool named curl (and
  146. libcurl the library), and may therefore not be valid for other curl-related
  147. projects. (There is however a small section for the PHP/CURL in this FAQ.)
  148. 1.2 What is libcurl?
  149. libcurl is a reliable and portable library which provides you with an easy
  150. interface to a range of common Internet protocols.
  151. You can use libcurl for free in your application, be it open source,
  152. commercial or closed-source.
  153. libcurl is most probably the most portable, most powerful and most often
  154. used C-based multi-platform file transfer library on this planet - be it
  155. open source or commercial.
  156. 1.3 What is curl not?
  157. Curl is not a wget clone. That is a common misconception. Never, during
  158. curl's development, have we intended curl to replace wget or compete on its
  159. market. Curl is targeted at single-shot file transfers.
  160. Curl is not a web site mirroring program. If you want to use curl to mirror
  161. something: fine, go ahead and write a script that wraps around curl to make
  162. it reality (like curlmirror.pl does).
  163. Curl is not an FTP site mirroring program. Sure, get and send FTP with curl
  164. but if you want systematic and sequential behavior you should write a
  165. script (or write a new program that interfaces libcurl) and do it.
  166. Curl is not a PHP tool, even though it works perfectly well when used from
  167. or with PHP (when using the PHP/CURL module).
  168. Curl is not a program for a single operating system. Curl exists, compiles,
  169. builds and runs under a wide range of operating systems, including all
  170. modern Unixes (and a bunch of older ones too), Windows, Amiga, BeOS, OS/2,
  171. OS X, QNX etc.
  172. 1.4 When will you make curl do XXXX ?
  173. We love suggestions of what to change in order to make curl and libcurl
  174. better. We do however believe in a few rules when it comes to the future of
  175. curl:
  176. Curl -- the command line tool -- is to remain a non-graphical command line
  177. tool. If you want GUIs or fancy scripting capabilities, you should look for
  178. another tool that uses libcurl.
  179. We do not add things to curl that other small and available tools already do
  180. very well at the side. Curl's output can be piped into another program or
  181. redirected to another file for the next program to interpret.
  182. We focus on protocol related issues and improvements. If you wanna do more
  183. magic with the supported protocols than curl currently does, chances are good
  184. we will agree. If you wanna add more protocols, we may very well agree.
  185. If you want someone else to do all the work while you wait for us to
  186. implement it for you, that is not a very friendly attitude. We spend a
  187. considerable time already on maintaining and developing curl. In order to
  188. get more out of us, you should consider trading in some of your time and
  189. effort in return. Simply go to the GitHub repo which resides at
  190. https://github.com/curl/curl, fork the project, and create pull requests
  191. with your proposed changes.
  192. If you write the code, chances are better that it will get into curl faster.
  193. 1.5 Who makes curl?
  194. curl and libcurl are not made by any single individual. Daniel Stenberg is
  195. project leader and main developer, but other persons' submissions are
  196. important and crucial. Anyone can contribute and post their changes and
  197. improvements and have them inserted in the main sources (of course on the
  198. condition that developers agree that the fixes are good).
  199. The full list of all contributors is found in the docs/THANKS file.
  200. curl is developed by a community, with Daniel at the wheel.
  201. 1.6 What do you get for making curl?
  202. Project cURL is entirely free and open. No person gets paid for developing
  203. curl full time. We do this voluntarily, mostly in our spare time.
  204. Occasionally companies pay individual developers to work on curl, but that's
  205. up to each company and developer. This is not controlled by nor supervised in
  206. any way by the project.
  207. We still get help from companies. Haxx provides web site, bandwidth, mailing
  208. lists etc, sourceforge.net hosts project services we take advantage from,
  209. like the bug tracker, and GitHub hosts the primary git repository at
  210. https://github.com/curl/curl. Also again, some companies have sponsored
  211. certain parts of the development in the past and I hope some will continue to
  212. do so in the future.
  213. If you want to support our project, consider a donation or a banner-program
  214. or even better: by helping us with coding, documenting or testing etc.
  215. 1.7 What about CURL from curl.com?
  216. During the summer of 2001, curl.com was busy advertising their client-side
  217. programming language for the web, named CURL.
  218. We are in no way associated with curl.com or their CURL programming
  219. language.
  220. Our project name curl has been in effective use since 1998. We were not the
  221. first computer related project to use the name "curl" and do not claim any
  222. rights to the name.
  223. We recognize that we will be living in parallel with curl.com and wish them
  224. every success.
  225. 1.8 I have a problem whom do I mail?
  226. Please do not mail any single individual unless you really need to. Keep
  227. curl-related questions on a suitable mailing list. All available mailing
  228. lists are listed in the MANUAL document and online at
  229. https://curl.haxx.se/mail/
  230. Keeping curl-related questions and discussions on mailing lists allows
  231. others to join in and help, to share their ideas, to contribute their
  232. suggestions and to spread their wisdom. Keeping discussions on public mailing
  233. lists also allows for others to learn from this (both current and future
  234. users thanks to the web based archives of the mailing lists), thus saving us
  235. from having to repeat ourselves even more. Thanks for respecting this.
  236. If you have found or simply suspect a security problem in curl or libcurl,
  237. mail curl-security at haxx.se (closed list of receivers, mails are not
  238. disclosed) and tell. Then we can produce a fix in a timely manner before the
  239. flaw is announced to the world, thus lessen the impact the problem will have
  240. on existing users.
  241. 1.9 Where do I buy commercial support for curl?
  242. curl is fully open source. It means you can hire any skilled engineer to fix
  243. your curl-related problems.
  244. We list available alternatives on the curl web site:
  245. https://curl.haxx.se/support.html
  246. 1.10 How many are using curl?
  247. It is impossible to tell.
  248. We don't know how many users that knowingly have installed and use curl.
  249. We don't know how many users that use curl without knowing that they are in
  250. fact using it.
  251. We don't know how many users that downloaded or installed curl and then
  252. never use it.
  253. In May 2012 Daniel did a counting game and came up with a number that may
  254. be completely wrong or somewhat accurate. Over 500 million!
  255. See https://daniel.haxx.se/blog/2012/05/16/300m-users/
  256. 1.11 Why don't you update ca-bundle.crt
  257. The ca cert bundle that used to be shipped with curl was very outdated and
  258. must be replaced with an up-to-date version by anyone who wants to verify
  259. peers. It is no longer provided by curl. The last curl release that ever
  260. shipped a ca cert bundle was curl 7.18.0.
  261. In the cURL project we've decided not to attempt to keep this file updated
  262. (or even present anymore) since deciding what to add to a ca cert bundle is
  263. an undertaking we've not been ready to accept, and the one we can get from
  264. Mozilla is perfectly fine so there's no need to duplicate that work.
  265. Today, with many services performed over HTTPS, every operating system
  266. should come with a default ca cert bundle that can be deemed somewhat
  267. trustworthy and that collection (if reasonably updated) should be deemed to
  268. be a lot better than a private curl version.
  269. If you want the most recent collection of ca certs that Mozilla Firefox
  270. uses, we recommend that you extract the collection yourself from Mozilla
  271. Firefox (by running 'make ca-bundle), or by using our online service setup
  272. for this purpose: https://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html
  273. 1.12 I have a problem who can I chat with?
  274. There's a bunch of friendly people hanging out in the #curl channel on the
  275. IRC network irc.freenode.net. If you're polite and nice, chances are good
  276. that you can get -- or provide -- help instantly.
  277. 1.13 curl's ECCN number?
  278. The US government restricts exports of software that contains or uses
  279. cryptography. When doing so, the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN)
  280. is used to identify the level of export control etc.
  281. Apache Software Foundation gives a good explanation of ECCNs at
  282. https://www.apache.org/dev/crypto.html
  283. We believe curl's number might be ECCN 5D002, another possibility is
  284. 5D992. It seems necessary to write them (the authority that administers ECCN
  285. numbers), asking to confirm.
  286. Comprehensible explanations of the meaning of such numbers and how to obtain
  287. them (resp.) are here
  288. http://www.bis.doc.gov/licensing/exportingbasics.htm
  289. http://www.bis.doc.gov/licensing/do_i_needaneccn.html
  290. An incomprehensible description of the two numbers above is here
  291. http://www.access.gpo.gov/bis/ear/pdf/ccl5-pt2.pdf
  292. 1.14 How do I submit my patch?
  293. When you have made a patch or a change of whatever sort, and want to submit
  294. that to the project, there are a few different ways we prefer:
  295. o send a patch to the curl-library mailing list. We're many subscribers
  296. there and there are lots of people who can review patches, comment on them
  297. and "receive" them properly.
  298. o if your patch changes or fixes a bug, you can also opt to submit a bug
  299. report in the bug tracker and attach your patch there. There are less
  300. people involved there.
  301. Lots of more details are found in the CONTRIBUTE and INTERNALS docs.
  302. 1.15 How do I port libcurl to my OS?
  303. Here's a rough step-by-step:
  304. 1. copy a suitable lib/config-*.h file as a start to lib/config-[youros].h
  305. 2. edit lib/config-[youros].h to match your OS and setup
  306. 3. edit lib/curl_setup.h to include config-[youros].h when your OS is
  307. detected by the preprocessor, in the style others already exist
  308. 4. compile lib/*.c and make them into a library
  309. 2. Install Related Problems
  310. 2.1 configure doesn't find OpenSSL even when it is installed
  311. This may be because of several reasons.
  312. 2.1.1 native linker doesn't find openssl
  313. Affected platforms:
  314. Solaris (native cc compiler)
  315. HPUX (native cc compiler)
  316. SGI IRIX (native cc compiler)
  317. SCO UNIX (native cc compiler)
  318. When configuring curl, I specify --with-ssl. OpenSSL is installed in
  319. /usr/local/ssl Configure reports SSL in /usr/local/ssl, but fails to find
  320. CRYPTO_lock in -lcrypto
  321. Cause: The cc for this test places the -L/usr/local/ssl/lib AFTER
  322. -lcrypto, so ld can't find the library. This is due to a bug in the GNU
  323. autoconf tool.
  324. Workaround: Specifying "LDFLAGS=-L/usr/local/ssl/lib" in front of
  325. ./configure places the -L/usr/local/ssl/lib early enough in the command
  326. line to make things work
  327. 2.1.2 only the libssl lib is missing
  328. If all include files and the libcrypto lib is present, with only the
  329. libssl being missing according to configure, this is most likely because
  330. a few functions are left out from the libssl.
  331. If the function names missing include RSA or RSAREF you can be certain
  332. that this is because libssl requires the RSA and RSAREF libs to build.
  333. See the INSTALL file section that explains how to add those libs to
  334. configure. Make sure that you remove the config.cache file before you
  335. rerun configure with the new flags.
  336. 2.2 Does curl work/build with other SSL libraries?
  337. Curl has been written to use a generic SSL function layer internally, and
  338. that SSL functionality can then be provided by one out of many different SSL
  339. backends.
  340. curl can be built to use one of the following SSL alternatives: OpenSSL,
  341. GnuTLS, yassl, NSS, PolarSSL, axTLS, Secure Transport (native iOS/OS X),
  342. WinSSL (native Windows) or GSKit (native IBM i). They all have their pros
  343. and cons, and we try to maintain a comparison of them here:
  344. https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-compared.html
  345. 2.3 Where can I find a copy of LIBEAY32.DLL?
  346. That is an OpenSSL binary built for Windows.
  347. Curl can be built with OpenSSL to do the SSL stuff. The LIBEAY32.DLL is then
  348. what curl needs on a windows machine to do https:// etc. Check out the curl
  349. web site to find accurate and up-to-date pointers to recent OpenSSL DLLs and
  350. other binary packages.
  351. 2.4 Does curl support SOCKS (RFC 1928) ?
  352. Yes, SOCKS 4 and 5 are supported.
  353. 3. Usage problems
  354. 3.1 curl: (1) SSL is disabled, https: not supported
  355. If you get this output when trying to get anything from a https:// server,
  356. it means that the instance of curl/libcurl that you're using was built
  357. without support for this protocol.
  358. This could've happened if the configure script that was run at build time
  359. couldn't find all libs and include files curl requires for SSL to work. If
  360. the configure script fails to find them, curl is simply built without SSL
  361. support.
  362. To get the https:// support into a curl that was previously built but that
  363. reports that https:// is not supported, you should dig through the document
  364. and logs and check out why the configure script doesn't find the SSL libs
  365. and/or include files.
  366. Also, check out the other paragraph in this FAQ labelled "configure doesn't
  367. find OpenSSL even when it is installed".
  368. 3.2 How do I tell curl to resume a transfer?
  369. Curl supports resumed transfers both ways on both FTP and HTTP.
  370. Try the -C option.
  371. 3.3 Why doesn't my posting using -F work?
  372. You can't arbitrarily use -F or -d, the choice between -F or -d depends on the
  373. HTTP operation you need curl to do and what the web server that will receive
  374. your post expects.
  375. If the form you're trying to submit uses the type 'multipart/form-data', then
  376. and only then you must use the -F type. In all the most common cases, you
  377. should use -d which then causes a posting with the type
  378. 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'.
  379. This is described in some detail in the MANUAL and TheArtOfHttpScripting
  380. documents, and if you don't understand it the first time, read it again
  381. before you post questions about this to the mailing list. Also, try reading
  382. through the mailing list archives for old postings and questions regarding
  383. this.
  384. 3.4 How do I tell curl to run custom FTP commands?
  385. You can tell curl to perform optional commands both before and/or after a
  386. file transfer. Study the -Q/--quote option.
  387. Since curl is used for file transfers, you don't normally use curl to
  388. perform FTP commands without transferring anything. Therefore you must
  389. always specify a URL to transfer to/from even when doing custom FTP
  390. commands, or use -I which implies the "no body" option sent to libcurl.
  391. 3.5 How can I disable the Accept: */* header?
  392. You can change all internally generated headers by adding a replacement with
  393. the -H/--header option. By adding a header with empty contents you safely
  394. disable that one. Use -H "Accept:" to disable that specific header.
  395. 3.6 Does curl support ASP, XML, XHTML or HTML version Y?
  396. To curl, all contents are alike. It doesn't matter how the page was
  397. generated. It may be ASP, PHP, Perl, shell-script, SSI or plain HTML
  398. files. There's no difference to curl and it doesn't even know what kind of
  399. language that generated the page.
  400. See also item 3.14 regarding javascript.
  401. 3.7 Can I use curl to delete/rename a file through FTP?
  402. Yes. You specify custom FTP commands with -Q/--quote.
  403. One example would be to delete a file after you have downloaded it:
  404. curl -O ftp://download.com/coolfile -Q '-DELE coolfile'
  405. or rename a file after upload:
  406. curl -T infile ftp://upload.com/dir/ -Q "-RNFR infile" -Q "-RNTO newname"
  407. 3.8 How do I tell curl to follow HTTP redirects?
  408. Curl does not follow so-called redirects by default. The Location: header
  409. that informs the client about this is only interpreted if you're using the
  410. -L/--location option. As in:
  411. curl -L http://redirector.com
  412. Not all redirects are HTTP ones, see 4.14
  413. 3.9 How do I use curl in my favorite programming language?
  414. There exist many language interfaces/bindings for curl that integrates it
  415. better with various languages. If you are fluid in a script language, you
  416. may very well opt to use such an interface instead of using the command line
  417. tool.
  418. Find out more about which languages that support curl directly, and how to
  419. install and use them, in the libcurl section of the curl web site:
  420. https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/
  421. All the various bindings to libcurl are made by other projects and people,
  422. outside of the cURL project. The cURL project itself only produces libcurl
  423. with its plain C API. If you don't find anywhere else to ask you can ask
  424. about bindings on the curl-library list too, but be prepared that people on
  425. that list may not know anything about bindings.
  426. In October 2009, there were interfaces available for the following
  427. languages: Ada95, Basic, C, C++, Ch, Cocoa, D, Dylan, Eiffel, Euphoria,
  428. Ferite, Gambas, glib/GTK+, Haskell, ILE/RPG, Java, Lisp, Lua, Mono, .NET,
  429. Object-Pascal, OCaml, Pascal, Perl, PHP, PostgreSQL, Python, R, Rexx, Ruby,
  430. Scheme, S-Lang, Smalltalk, SP-Forth, SPL, Tcl, Visual Basic, Visual FoxPro,
  431. Q, wxwidgets and XBLite. By the time you read this, additional ones may have
  432. appeared!
  433. 3.10 What about SOAP, WebDAV, XML-RPC or similar protocols over HTTP?
  434. Curl adheres to the HTTP spec, which basically means you can play with *any*
  435. protocol that is built on top of HTTP. Protocols such as SOAP, WEBDAV and
  436. XML-RPC are all such ones. You can use -X to set custom requests and -H to
  437. set custom headers (or replace internally generated ones).
  438. Using libcurl is of course just as good and you'd just use the proper
  439. library options to do the same.
  440. 3.11 How do I POST with a different Content-Type?
  441. You can always replace the internally generated headers with -H/--header.
  442. To make a simple HTTP POST with text/xml as content-type, do something like:
  443. curl -d "datatopost" -H "Content-Type: text/xml" [URL]
  444. 3.12 Why do FTP specific features over HTTP proxy fail?
  445. Because when you use a HTTP proxy, the protocol spoken on the network will
  446. be HTTP, even if you specify a FTP URL. This effectively means that you
  447. normally can't use FTP specific features such as FTP upload and FTP quote
  448. etc.
  449. There is one exception to this rule, and that is if you can "tunnel through"
  450. the given HTTP proxy. Proxy tunneling is enabled with a special option (-p)
  451. and is generally not available as proxy admins usually disable tunneling to
  452. ports other than 443 (which is used for HTTPS access through proxies).
  453. 3.13 Why does my single/double quotes fail?
  454. To specify a command line option that includes spaces, you might need to
  455. put the entire option within quotes. Like in:
  456. curl -d " with spaces " url.com
  457. or perhaps
  458. curl -d ' with spaces ' url.com
  459. Exactly what kind of quotes and how to do this is entirely up to the shell
  460. or command line interpreter that you are using. For most unix shells, you
  461. can more or less pick either single (') or double (") quotes. For
  462. Windows/DOS prompts I believe you're forced to use double (") quotes.
  463. Please study the documentation for your particular environment. Examples in
  464. the curl docs will use a mix of both of these as shown above. You must
  465. adjust them to work in your environment.
  466. Remember that curl works and runs on more operating systems than most single
  467. individuals have ever tried.
  468. 3.14 Does curl support Javascript or PAC (automated proxy config)?
  469. Many web pages do magic stuff using embedded Javascript. Curl and libcurl
  470. have no built-in support for that, so it will be treated just like any other
  471. contents.
  472. .pac files are a netscape invention and are sometimes used by organizations
  473. to allow them to differentiate which proxies to use. The .pac contents is
  474. just a Javascript program that gets invoked by the browser and that returns
  475. the name of the proxy to connect to. Since curl doesn't support Javascript,
  476. it can't support .pac proxy configuration either.
  477. Some workarounds usually suggested to overcome this Javascript dependency:
  478. Depending on the Javascript complexity, write up a script that translates it
  479. to another language and execute that.
  480. Read the Javascript code and rewrite the same logic in another language.
  481. Implement a Javascript interpreter, people have successfully used the
  482. Mozilla Javascript engine in the past.
  483. Ask your admins to stop this, for a static proxy setup or similar.
  484. 3.15 Can I do recursive fetches with curl?
  485. No. curl itself has no code that performs recursive operations, such as
  486. those performed by wget and similar tools.
  487. There exists wrapper scripts with that functionality (for example the
  488. curlmirror perl script), and you can write programs based on libcurl to do
  489. it, but the command line tool curl itself cannot.
  490. 3.16 What certificates do I need when I use SSL?
  491. There are three different kinds of "certificates" to keep track of when we
  492. talk about using SSL-based protocols (HTTPS or FTPS) using curl or libcurl.
  493. CLIENT CERTIFICATE
  494. The server you communicate with may require that you can provide this in
  495. order to prove that you actually are who you claim to be. If the server
  496. doesn't require this, you don't need a client certificate.
  497. A client certificate is always used together with a private key, and the
  498. private key has a pass phrase that protects it.
  499. SERVER CERTIFICATE
  500. The server you communicate with has a server certificate. You can and should
  501. verify this certificate to make sure that you are truly talking to the real
  502. server and not a server impersonating it.
  503. CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY CERTIFICATE ("CA cert")
  504. You often have several CA certs in a CA cert bundle that can be used to
  505. verify a server certificate that was signed by one of the authorities in the
  506. bundle. curl does not come with a CA cert bundle but most curl installs
  507. provide one. You can also override the default.
  508. The server certificate verification process is made by using a Certificate
  509. Authority certificate ("CA cert") that was used to sign the server
  510. certificate. Server certificate verification is enabled by default in curl
  511. and libcurl and is often the reason for problems as explained in FAQ entry
  512. 4.12 and the SSLCERTS document
  513. (https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html). Server certificates that are
  514. "self-signed" or otherwise signed by a CA that you do not have a CA cert
  515. for, cannot be verified. If the verification during a connect fails, you are
  516. refused access. You then need to explicitly disable the verification to
  517. connect to the server.
  518. 3.17 How do I list the root dir of an FTP server?
  519. There are two ways. The way defined in the RFC is to use an encoded slash
  520. in the first path part. List the "/tmp" dir like this:
  521. curl ftp://ftp.sunet.se/%2ftmp/
  522. or the not-quite-kosher-but-more-readable way, by simply starting the path
  523. section of the URL with a slash:
  524. curl ftp://ftp.sunet.se//tmp/
  525. 3.18 Can I use curl to send a POST/PUT and not wait for a response?
  526. No.
  527. But you could easily write your own program using libcurl to do such stunts.
  528. 3.19 How do I get HTTP from a host using a specific IP address?
  529. For example, you may be trying out a web site installation that isn't yet in
  530. the DNS. Or you have a site using multiple IP addresses for a given host
  531. name and you want to address a specific one out of the set.
  532. Set a custom Host: header that identifies the server name you want to reach
  533. but use the target IP address in the URL:
  534. curl --header "Host: www.example.com" http://127.0.0.1/
  535. You can also opt to add faked host name entries to curl with the --resolve
  536. option. That has the added benefit that things like redirects will also work
  537. properly. The above operation would instead be done as:
  538. curl --resolve www.example.com:80:127.0.0.1 http://www.example.com/
  539. 3.20 How to SFTP from my user's home directory?
  540. Contrary to how FTP works, SFTP and SCP URLs specify the exact directory to
  541. work with. It means that if you don't specify that you want the user's home
  542. directory, you get the actual root directory.
  543. To specify a file in your user's home directory, you need to use the correct
  544. URL syntax which for sftp might look similar to:
  545. curl -O -u user:password sftp://example.com/~/file.txt
  546. and for SCP it is just a different protocol prefix:
  547. curl -O -u user:password scp://example.com/~/file.txt
  548. 3.21 Protocol xxx not supported or disabled in libcurl
  549. When passing on a URL to curl to use, it may respond that the particular
  550. protocol is not supported or disabled. The particular way this error message
  551. is phrased is because curl doesn't make a distinction internally of whether
  552. a particular protocol is not supported (i.e. never got any code added that
  553. knows how to speak that protocol) or if it was explicitly disabled. curl can
  554. be built to only support a given set of protocols, and the rest would then
  555. be disabled or not supported.
  556. Note that this error will also occur if you pass a wrongly spelled protocol
  557. part as in "htpt://example.com" or as in the less evident case if you prefix
  558. the protocol part with a space as in " http://example.com/".
  559. 3.22 curl -X gives me HTTP problems
  560. In normal circumstances, -X should hardly ever be used.
  561. By default you use curl without explicitly saying which request method to
  562. use when the URL identifies a HTTP transfer. If you just pass in a URL like
  563. "curl http://example.com" it will use GET. If you use -d or -F curl will use
  564. POST, -I will cause a HEAD and -T will make it a PUT.
  565. If for whatever reason you're not happy with these default choices that curl
  566. does for you, you can override those request methods by specifying -X
  567. [WHATEVER]. This way you can for example send a DELETE by doing "curl -X
  568. DELETE [URL]".
  569. It is thus pointless to do "curl -XGET [URL]" as GET would be used
  570. anyway. In the same vein it is pointless to do "curl -X POST -d data
  571. [URL]"... But you can make a fun and somewhat rare request that sends a
  572. request-body in a GET request with something like "curl -X GET -d data
  573. [URL]"
  574. Note that -X doesn't actually change curl's behavior as it only modifies the
  575. actual string sent in the request, but that may of course trigger a
  576. different set of events.
  577. Accordingly, by using -XPOST on a command line that for example would follow
  578. a 303 redirect, you will effectively prevent curl from behaving
  579. correctly. Be aware.
  580. 4. Running Problems
  581. 4.1 Problems connecting to SSL servers.
  582. It took a very long time before we could sort out why curl had problems to
  583. connect to certain SSL servers when using SSLeay or OpenSSL v0.9+. The
  584. error sometimes showed up similar to:
  585. 16570:error:1407D071:SSL routines:SSL2_READ:bad mac decode:s2_pkt.c:233:
  586. It turned out to be because many older SSL servers don't deal with SSLv3
  587. requests properly. To correct this problem, tell curl to select SSLv2 from
  588. the command line (-2/--sslv2).
  589. There have also been examples where the remote server didn't like the SSLv2
  590. request and instead you had to force curl to use SSLv3 with -3/--sslv3.
  591. 4.2 Why do I get problems when I use & or % in the URL?
  592. In general unix shells, the & symbol is treated specially and when used, it
  593. runs the specified command in the background. To safely send the & as a part
  594. of a URL, you should quote the entire URL by using single (') or double (")
  595. quotes around it. Similar problems can also occur on some shells with other
  596. characters, including ?*!$~(){}<>\|;`. When in doubt, quote the URL.
  597. An example that would invoke a remote CGI that uses &-symbols could be:
  598. curl 'http://www.altavista.com/cgi-bin/query?text=yes&q=curl'
  599. In Windows, the standard DOS shell treats the percent sign specially and you
  600. need to use TWO percent signs for each single one you want to use in the
  601. URL.
  602. If you want a literal percent sign to be part of the data you pass in a POST
  603. using -d/--data you must encode it as '%25' (which then also needs the
  604. percent sign doubled on Windows machines).
  605. 4.3 How can I use {, }, [ or ] to specify multiple URLs?
  606. Because those letters have a special meaning to the shell, to be used in
  607. a URL specified to curl you must quote them.
  608. An example that downloads two URLs (sequentially) would be:
  609. curl '{curl,www}.haxx.se'
  610. To be able to use those characters as actual parts of the URL (without using
  611. them for the curl URL "globbing" system), use the -g/--globoff option:
  612. curl -g 'www.site.com/weirdname[].html'
  613. 4.4 Why do I get downloaded data even though the web page doesn't exist?
  614. Curl asks remote servers for the page you specify. If the page doesn't exist
  615. at the server, the HTTP protocol defines how the server should respond and
  616. that means that headers and a "page" will be returned. That's simply how
  617. HTTP works.
  618. By using the --fail option you can tell curl explicitly to not get any data
  619. if the HTTP return code doesn't say success.
  620. 4.5 Why do I get return code XXX from a HTTP server?
  621. RFC2616 clearly explains the return codes. This is a short transcript. Go
  622. read the RFC for exact details:
  623. 4.5.1 "400 Bad Request"
  624. The request could not be understood by the server due to malformed
  625. syntax. The client SHOULD NOT repeat the request without modifications.
  626. 4.5.2 "401 Unauthorized"
  627. The request requires user authentication.
  628. 4.5.3 "403 Forbidden"
  629. The server understood the request, but is refusing to fulfil it.
  630. Authorization will not help and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated.
  631. 4.5.4 "404 Not Found"
  632. The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication
  633. is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.
  634. 4.5.5 "405 Method Not Allowed"
  635. The method specified in the Request-Line is not allowed for the resource
  636. identified by the Request-URI. The response MUST include an Allow header
  637. containing a list of valid methods for the requested resource.
  638. 4.5.6 "301 Moved Permanently"
  639. If you get this return code and an HTML output similar to this:
  640. <H1>Moved Permanently</H1> The document has moved <A
  641. HREF="http://same_url_now_with_a_trailing_slash/">here</A>.
  642. it might be because you request a directory URL but without the trailing
  643. slash. Try the same operation again _with_ the trailing URL, or use the
  644. -L/--location option to follow the redirection.
  645. 4.6 Can you tell me what error code 142 means?
  646. All curl error codes are described at the end of the man page, in the
  647. section called "EXIT CODES".
  648. Error codes that are larger than the highest documented error code means
  649. that curl has exited due to a crash. This is a serious error, and we
  650. appreciate a detailed bug report from you that describes how we could go
  651. ahead and repeat this!
  652. 4.7 How do I keep user names and passwords secret in Curl command lines?
  653. This problem has two sides:
  654. The first part is to avoid having clear-text passwords in the command line
  655. so that they don't appear in 'ps' outputs and similar. That is easily
  656. avoided by using the "-K" option to tell curl to read parameters from a file
  657. or stdin to which you can pass the secret info. curl itself will also
  658. attempt to "hide" the given password by blanking out the option - this
  659. doesn't work on all platforms.
  660. To keep the passwords in your account secret from the rest of the world is
  661. not a task that curl addresses. You could of course encrypt them somehow to
  662. at least hide them from being read by human eyes, but that is not what
  663. anyone would call security.
  664. Also note that regular HTTP (using Basic authentication) and FTP passwords
  665. are sent in clear across the network. All it takes for anyone to fetch them
  666. is to listen on the network. Eavesdropping is very easy. Use more secure
  667. authentication methods (like Digest, Negotiate or even NTLM) or consider the
  668. SSL-based alternatives HTTPS and FTPS.
  669. 4.8 I found a bug!
  670. It is not a bug if the behavior is documented. Read the docs first.
  671. Especially check out the KNOWN_BUGS file, it may be a documented bug!
  672. If it is a problem with a binary you've downloaded or a package for your
  673. particular platform, try contacting the person who built the package/archive
  674. you have.
  675. If there is a bug, read the BUGS document first. Then report it as described
  676. in there.
  677. 4.9 Curl can't authenticate to the server that requires NTLM?
  678. NTLM support requires OpenSSL, GnuTLS, mbedTLS, NSS, Secure Transport, or
  679. Microsoft Windows libraries at build-time to provide this functionality.
  680. NTLM is a Microsoft proprietary protocol. Proprietary formats are evil. You
  681. should not use such ones.
  682. 4.10 My HTTP request using HEAD, PUT or DELETE doesn't work!
  683. Many web servers allow or demand that the administrator configures the
  684. server properly for these requests to work on the web server.
  685. Some servers seem to support HEAD only on certain kinds of URLs.
  686. To fully grasp this, try the documentation for the particular server
  687. software you're trying to interact with. This is not anything curl can do
  688. anything about.
  689. 4.11 Why does my HTTP range requests return the full document?
  690. Because the range may not be supported by the server, or the server may
  691. choose to ignore it and return the full document anyway.
  692. 4.12 Why do I get "certificate verify failed" ?
  693. You invoke curl 7.10 or later to communicate on a https:// URL and get an
  694. error back looking something similar to this:
  695. curl: (35) SSL: error:14090086:SSL routines:
  696. SSL3_GET_SERVER_CERTIFICATE:certificate verify failed
  697. Then it means that curl couldn't verify that the server's certificate was
  698. good. Curl verifies the certificate using the CA cert bundle that comes with
  699. the curl installation.
  700. To disable the verification (which makes it act like curl did before 7.10),
  701. use -k. This does however enable man-in-the-middle attacks.
  702. If you get this failure but are having a CA cert bundle installed and used,
  703. the server's certificate is not signed by one of the CA's in the bundle. It
  704. might for example be self-signed. You then correct this problem by obtaining
  705. a valid CA cert for the server. Or again, decrease the security by disabling
  706. this check.
  707. Details are also in the SSLCERTS file in the release archives, found online
  708. here: https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html
  709. 4.13 Why is curl -R on Windows one hour off?
  710. Since curl 7.53.0 this issue should be fixed as long as curl was built with
  711. any modern compiler that allows for a 64-bit curl_off_t type. For older
  712. compilers or prior curl versions it may set a time that appears one hour off.
  713. This happens due to a flaw in how Windows stores and uses file modification
  714. times and it is not easily worked around. For more details read this:
  715. http://www.codeproject.com/datetime/dstbugs.asp
  716. 4.14 Redirects work in browser but not with curl!
  717. curl supports HTTP redirects well (see item 3.8). Browsers generally support
  718. at least two other ways to perform redirects that curl does not:
  719. Meta tags. You can write a HTML tag that will cause the browser to redirect
  720. to another given URL after a certain time.
  721. Javascript. You can write a Javascript program embedded in a HTML page that
  722. redirects the browser to another given URL.
  723. There is no way to make curl follow these redirects. You must either
  724. manually figure out what the page is set to do, or you write a script that
  725. parses the results and fetches the new URL.
  726. 4.15 FTPS doesn't work
  727. curl supports FTPS (sometimes known as FTP-SSL) both implicit and explicit
  728. mode.
  729. When a URL is used that starts with FTPS://, curl assumes implicit SSL on
  730. the control connection and will therefore immediately connect and try to
  731. speak SSL. FTPS:// connections default to port 990.
  732. To use explicit FTPS, you use a FTP:// URL and the --ftp-ssl option (or one
  733. of its related flavours). This is the most common method, and the one
  734. mandated by RFC4217. This kind of connection will then of course use the
  735. standard FTP port 21 by default.
  736. 4.16 My HTTP POST or PUT requests are slow!
  737. libcurl makes all POST and PUT requests (except for POST requests with a
  738. very tiny request body) use the "Expect: 100-continue" header. This header
  739. allows the server to deny the operation early so that libcurl can bail out
  740. before having to send any data. This is useful in authentication
  741. cases and others.
  742. However, many servers don't implement the Expect: stuff properly and if the
  743. server doesn't respond (positively) within 1 second libcurl will continue
  744. and send off the data anyway.
  745. You can disable libcurl's use of the Expect: header the same way you disable
  746. any header, using -H / CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, or by forcing it to use HTTP 1.0.
  747. 4.17 Non-functional connect timeouts
  748. In most Windows setups having a timeout longer than 21 seconds make no
  749. difference, as it will only send 3 TCP SYN packets and no more. The second
  750. packet sent three seconds after the first and the third six seconds after
  751. the second. No more than three packets are sent, no matter how long the
  752. timeout is set.
  753. See option TcpMaxConnectRetransmissions on this page:
  754. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/175523/en-us
  755. Also, even on non-Windows systems there may run a firewall or anti-virus
  756. software or similar that accepts the connection but does not actually do
  757. anything else. This will make (lib)curl to consider the connection connected
  758. and thus the connect timeout won't trigger.
  759. 4.18 file:// URLs containing drive letters (Windows, NetWare)
  760. When using curl to try to download a local file, one might use a URL
  761. in this format:
  762. file://D:/blah.txt
  763. You'll find that even if D:\blah.txt does exist, curl returns a 'file
  764. not found' error.
  765. According to RFC 1738 (https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt),
  766. file:// URLs must contain a host component, but it is ignored by
  767. most implementations. In the above example, 'D:' is treated as the
  768. host component, and is taken away. Thus, curl tries to open '/blah.txt'.
  769. If your system is installed to drive C:, that will resolve to 'C:\blah.txt',
  770. and if that doesn't exist you will get the not found error.
  771. To fix this problem, use file:// URLs with *three* leading slashes:
  772. file:///D:/blah.txt
  773. Alternatively, if it makes more sense, specify 'localhost' as the host
  774. component:
  775. file://localhost/D:/blah.txt
  776. In either case, curl should now be looking for the correct file.
  777. 4.19 Why doesn't curl return an error when the network cable is unplugged?
  778. Unplugging a cable is not an error situation. The TCP/IP protocol stack
  779. was designed to be fault tolerant, so even though there may be a physical
  780. break somewhere the connection shouldn't be affected, just possibly
  781. delayed. Eventually, the physical break will be fixed or the data will be
  782. re-routed around the physical problem through another path.
  783. In such cases, the TCP/IP stack is responsible for detecting when the
  784. network connection is irrevocably lost. Since with some protocols it is
  785. perfectly legal for the client to wait indefinitely for data, the stack may
  786. never report a problem, and even when it does, it can take up to 20 minutes
  787. for it to detect an issue. The curl option --keepalive-time enables
  788. keep-alive support in the TCP/IP stack which makes it periodically probe the
  789. connection to make sure it is still available to send data. That should
  790. reliably detect any TCP/IP network failure.
  791. But even that won't detect the network going down before the TCP/IP
  792. connection is established (e.g. during a DNS lookup) or using protocols that
  793. don't use TCP. To handle those situations, curl offers a number of timeouts
  794. on its own. --speed-limit/--speed-time will abort if the data transfer rate
  795. falls too low, and --connect-timeout and --max-time can be used to put an
  796. overall timeout on the connection phase or the entire transfer.
  797. A libcurl-using application running in a known physical environment (e.g.
  798. an embedded device with only a single network connection) may want to act
  799. immediately if its lone network connection goes down. That can be achieved
  800. by having the application monitor the network connection on its own using an
  801. OS-specific mechanism, then signalling libcurl to abort (see also item 5.13).
  802. 4.20 curl doesn't return error for HTTP non-200 responses!
  803. Correct. Unless you use -f (--fail).
  804. When doing HTTP transfers, curl will perform exactly what you're asking it
  805. to do and if successful it will not return an error. You can use curl to
  806. test your web server's "file not found" page (that gets 404 back), you can
  807. use it to check your authentication protected web pages (that gets a 401
  808. back) and so on.
  809. The specific HTTP response code does not constitute a problem or error for
  810. curl. It simply sends and delivers HTTP as you asked and if that worked,
  811. everything is fine and dandy. The response code is generally providing more
  812. higher level error information that curl doesn't care about. The error was
  813. not in the HTTP transfer.
  814. If you want your command line to treat error codes in the 400 and up range
  815. as errors and thus return a non-zero value and possibly show an error
  816. message, curl has a dedicated option for that: -f (CURLOPT_FAILONERROR in
  817. libcurl speak).
  818. You can also use the -w option and the variable %{response_code} to extract
  819. the exact response code that was returned in the response.
  820. 4.21 Why is there a HTTP/1.1 in my HTTP/2 request?
  821. If you use verbose to see the HTTP request when you send off a HTTP/2
  822. request, it will still say 1.1.
  823. The reason for this is that we first generate the request to send using the
  824. old 1.1 style and show that request in the verbose output, and then we
  825. convert it over to the binary header-compressed HTTP/2 style. The actual
  826. "1.1" part from that request is then not actually used in the transfer.
  827. The binary HTTP/2 headers are not human readable.
  828. 5. libcurl Issues
  829. 5.1 Is libcurl thread-safe?
  830. Yes.
  831. We have written the libcurl code specifically adjusted for multi-threaded
  832. programs. libcurl will use thread-safe functions instead of non-safe ones if
  833. your system has such. Note that you must never share the same handle in
  834. multiple threads.
  835. There may be some exceptions to thread safety depending on how libcurl was
  836. built. Please review the guidelines for thread safety to learn more:
  837. https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/threadsafe.html
  838. 5.2 How can I receive all data into a large memory chunk?
  839. [ See also the examples/getinmemory.c source ]
  840. You are in full control of the callback function that gets called every time
  841. there is data received from the remote server. You can make that callback do
  842. whatever you want. You do not have to write the received data to a file.
  843. One solution to this problem could be to have a pointer to a struct that you
  844. pass to the callback function. You set the pointer using the
  845. CURLOPT_WRITEDATA option. Then that pointer will be passed to the callback
  846. instead of a FILE * to a file:
  847. /* imaginary struct */
  848. struct MemoryStruct {
  849. char *memory;
  850. size_t size;
  851. };
  852. /* imaginary callback function */
  853. size_t
  854. WriteMemoryCallback(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb, void *data)
  855. {
  856. size_t realsize = size * nmemb;
  857. struct MemoryStruct *mem = (struct MemoryStruct *)data;
  858. mem->memory = (char *)realloc(mem->memory, mem->size + realsize + 1);
  859. if (mem->memory) {
  860. memcpy(&(mem->memory[mem->size]), ptr, realsize);
  861. mem->size += realsize;
  862. mem->memory[mem->size] = 0;
  863. }
  864. return realsize;
  865. }
  866. 5.3 How do I fetch multiple files with libcurl?
  867. libcurl has excellent support for transferring multiple files. You should
  868. just repeatedly set new URLs with curl_easy_setopt() and then transfer it
  869. with curl_easy_perform(). The handle you get from curl_easy_init() is not
  870. only reusable, but you're even encouraged to reuse it if you can, as that
  871. will enable libcurl to use persistent connections.
  872. 5.4 Does libcurl do Winsock initialization on win32 systems?
  873. Yes, if told to in the curl_global_init() call.
  874. 5.5 Does CURLOPT_WRITEDATA and CURLOPT_READDATA work on win32 ?
  875. Yes, but you cannot open a FILE * and pass the pointer to a DLL and have
  876. that DLL use the FILE * (as the DLL and the client application cannot access
  877. each others' variable memory areas). If you set CURLOPT_WRITEDATA you must
  878. also use CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION as well to set a function that writes the
  879. file, even if that simply writes the data to the specified FILE *.
  880. Similarly, if you use CURLOPT_READDATA you must also specify
  881. CURLOPT_READFUNCTION.
  882. 5.6 What about Keep-Alive or persistent connections?
  883. curl and libcurl have excellent support for persistent connections when
  884. transferring several files from the same server. Curl will attempt to reuse
  885. connections for all URLs specified on the same command line/config file, and
  886. libcurl will reuse connections for all transfers that are made using the
  887. same libcurl handle.
  888. When you use the easy interface the connection cache is kept within the easy
  889. handle. If you instead use the multi interface, the connection cache will be
  890. kept within the multi handle and will be shared among all the easy handles
  891. that are used within the same multi handle.
  892. 5.7 Link errors when building libcurl on Windows!
  893. You need to make sure that your project, and all the libraries (both static
  894. and dynamic) that it links against, are compiled/linked against the same run
  895. time library.
  896. This is determined by the /MD, /ML, /MT (and their corresponding /M?d)
  897. options to the command line compiler. /MD (linking against MSVCRT dll) seems
  898. to be the most commonly used option.
  899. When building an application that uses the static libcurl library, you must
  900. add -DCURL_STATICLIB to your CFLAGS. Otherwise the linker will look for
  901. dynamic import symbols. If you're using Visual Studio, you need to instead
  902. add CURL_STATICLIB in the "Preprocessor Definitions" section.
  903. If you get linker error like "unknown symbol __imp__curl_easy_init ..." you
  904. have linked against the wrong (static) library. If you want to use the
  905. libcurl.dll and import lib, you don't need any extra CFLAGS, but use one of
  906. the import libraries below. These are the libraries produced by the various
  907. lib/Makefile.* files:
  908. Target: static lib. import lib for libcurl*.dll.
  909. -----------------------------------------------------------
  910. MingW: libcurl.a libcurldll.a
  911. MSVC (release): libcurl.lib libcurl_imp.lib
  912. MSVC (debug): libcurld.lib libcurld_imp.lib
  913. Borland: libcurl.lib libcurl_imp.lib
  914. 5.8 libcurl.so.X: open failed: No such file or directory
  915. This is an error message you might get when you try to run a program linked
  916. with a shared version of libcurl and your run-time linker (ld.so) couldn't
  917. find the shared library named libcurl.so.X. (Where X is the number of the
  918. current libcurl ABI, typically 3 or 4).
  919. You need to make sure that ld.so finds libcurl.so.X. You can do that
  920. multiple ways, and it differs somewhat between different operating systems,
  921. but they are usually:
  922. * Add an option to the linker command line that specify the hard-coded path
  923. the run-time linker should check for the lib (usually -R)
  924. * Set an environment variable (LD_LIBRARY_PATH for example) where ld.so
  925. should check for libs
  926. * Adjust the system's config to check for libs in the directory where you've
  927. put the dir (like Linux's /etc/ld.so.conf)
  928. 'man ld.so' and 'man ld' will tell you more details
  929. 5.9 How does libcurl resolve host names?
  930. libcurl supports a large a number of different name resolve functions. One
  931. of them is picked at build-time and will be used unconditionally. Thus, if
  932. you want to change name resolver function you must rebuild libcurl and tell
  933. it to use a different function.
  934. - The non-IPv6 resolver that can use one of four different host name resolve
  935. calls (depending on what your system supports):
  936. A - gethostbyname()
  937. B - gethostbyname_r() with 3 arguments
  938. C - gethostbyname_r() with 5 arguments
  939. D - gethostbyname_r() with 6 arguments
  940. - The IPv6-resolver that uses getaddrinfo()
  941. - The c-ares based name resolver that uses the c-ares library for resolves.
  942. Using this offers asynchronous name resolves.
  943. - The threaded resolver (default option on Windows). It uses:
  944. A - gethostbyname() on plain IPv4 hosts
  945. B - getaddrinfo() on IPv6 enabled hosts
  946. Also note that libcurl never resolves or reverse-lookups addresses given as
  947. pure numbers, such as 127.0.0.1 or ::1.
  948. 5.10 How do I prevent libcurl from writing the response to stdout?
  949. libcurl provides a default built-in write function that writes received data
  950. to stdout. Set the CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION to receive the data, or possibly
  951. set CURLOPT_WRITEDATA to a different FILE * handle.
  952. 5.11 How do I make libcurl not receive the whole HTTP response?
  953. You make the write callback (or progress callback) return an error and
  954. libcurl will then abort the transfer.
  955. 5.12 Can I make libcurl fake or hide my real IP address?
  956. No. libcurl operates on a higher level. Besides, faking IP address would
  957. imply sending IP packets with a made-up source address, and then you normally
  958. get a problem with receiving the packet sent back as they would then not be
  959. routed to you!
  960. If you use a proxy to access remote sites, the sites will not see your local
  961. IP address but instead the address of the proxy.
  962. Also note that on many networks NATs or other IP-munging techniques are used
  963. that makes you see and use a different IP address locally than what the
  964. remote server will see you coming from. You may also consider using
  965. https://www.torproject.org/ .
  966. 5.13 How do I stop an ongoing transfer?
  967. With the easy interface you make sure to return the correct error code from
  968. one of the callbacks, but none of them are instant. There is no function you
  969. can call from another thread or similar that will stop it immediately.
  970. Instead, you need to make sure that one of the callbacks you use returns an
  971. appropriate value that will stop the transfer. Suitable callbacks that you
  972. can do this with include the progress callback, the read callback and the
  973. write callback.
  974. If you're using the multi interface, you can also stop a transfer by
  975. removing the particular easy handle from the multi stack at any moment you
  976. think the transfer is done or when you wish to abort the transfer.
  977. 5.14 Using C++ non-static functions for callbacks?
  978. libcurl is a C library, it doesn't know anything about C++ member functions.
  979. You can overcome this "limitation" with relative ease using a static
  980. member function that is passed a pointer to the class:
  981. // f is the pointer to your object.
  982. static size_t YourClass::func(void *buffer, size_t sz, size_t n, void *f)
  983. {
  984. // Call non-static member function.
  985. static_cast<YourClass*>(f)->nonStaticFunction();
  986. }
  987. // This is how you pass pointer to the static function:
  988. curl_easy_setopt(hcurl, CURLOPT_WRITEFUNCTION, YourClass::func);
  989. curl_easy_setopt(hcurl, CURLOPT_WRITEDATA, this);
  990. 5.15 How do I get an FTP directory listing?
  991. If you end the FTP URL you request with a slash, libcurl will provide you
  992. with a directory listing of that given directory. You can also set
  993. CURLOPT_CUSTOMREQUEST to alter what exact listing command libcurl would use
  994. to list the files.
  995. The follow-up question tends to be how is a program supposed to parse the
  996. directory listing. How does it know what's a file and what's a dir and what's
  997. a symlink etc. If the FTP server supports the MLSD command then it will
  998. return data in a machine-readable format that can be parsed for type. The
  999. types are specified by RFC3659 section 7.5.1. If MLSD is not supported then
  1000. you have to work with what you're given. The LIST output format is entirely
  1001. at the server's own liking and the NLST output doesn't reveal any types and
  1002. in many cases doesn't even include all the directory entries. Also, both LIST
  1003. and NLST tend to hide unix-style hidden files (those that start with a dot)
  1004. by default so you need to do "LIST -a" or similar to see them.
  1005. Example - List only directories.
  1006. ftp.funet.fi supports MLSD and ftp.kernel.org does not:
  1007. curl -s ftp.funet.fi/pub/ -X MLSD | \
  1008. perl -lne 'print if s/(?:^|;)type=dir;[^ ]+ (.+)$/$1/'
  1009. curl -s ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/ | \
  1010. perl -lne 'print if s/^d[-rwx]{9}(?: +[^ ]+){7} (.+)$/$1/'
  1011. If you need to parse LIST output in libcurl one such existing
  1012. list parser is available at https://cr.yp.to/ftpparse.html Versions of
  1013. libcurl since 7.21.0 also provide the ability to specify a wildcard to
  1014. download multiple files from one FTP directory.
  1015. 5.16 I want a different time-out!
  1016. Time and time again users realize that CURLOPT_TIMEOUT and
  1017. CURLOPT_CONNECTIMEOUT are not sufficiently advanced or flexible to cover all
  1018. the various use cases and scenarios applications end up with.
  1019. libcurl offers many more ways to time-out operations. A common alternative
  1020. is to use the CURLOPT_LOW_SPEED_LIMIT and CURLOPT_LOW_SPEED_TIME options to
  1021. specify the lowest possible speed to accept before to consider the transfer
  1022. timed out.
  1023. The most flexible way is by writing your own time-out logic and using
  1024. CURLOPT_PROGRESSFUNCTION (perhaps in combination with other callbacks) and
  1025. use that to figure out exactly when the right condition is met when the
  1026. transfer should get stopped.
  1027. 5.17 Can I write a server with libcurl?
  1028. No. libcurl offers no functions or building blocks to build any kind of
  1029. internet protocol server. libcurl is only a client-side library. For server
  1030. libraries, you need to continue your search elsewhere but there exist many
  1031. good open source ones out there for most protocols you could possibly want a
  1032. server for. And there are really good stand-alone ones that have been tested
  1033. and proven for many years. There's no need for you to reinvent them!
  1034. 5.18 Does libcurl use threads?
  1035. Put simply: no, libcurl will execute in the same thread you call it in. All
  1036. callbacks will be called in the same thread as the one you call libcurl in.
  1037. If you want to avoid your thread to be blocked by the libcurl call, you make
  1038. sure you use the non-blocking API which will do transfers asynchronously -
  1039. but still in the same single thread.
  1040. libcurl will potentially internally use threads for name resolving, if it
  1041. was built to work like that, but in those cases it'll create the child
  1042. threads by itself and they will only be used and then killed internally by
  1043. libcurl and never exposed to the outside.
  1044. 6. License Issues
  1045. Curl and libcurl are released under a MIT/X derivate license. The license is
  1046. very liberal and should not impose a problem for your project. This section
  1047. is just a brief summary for the cases we get the most questions. (Parts of
  1048. this section was much enhanced by Bjorn Reese.)
  1049. We are not lawyers and this is not legal advice. You should probably consult
  1050. one if you want true and accurate legal insights without our prejudice. Note
  1051. especially that this section concerns the libcurl license only; compiling in
  1052. features of libcurl that depend on other libraries (e.g. OpenSSL) may affect
  1053. the licensing obligations of your application.
  1054. 6.1 I have a GPL program, can I use the libcurl library?
  1055. Yes!
  1056. Since libcurl may be distributed under the MIT/X derivate license, it can be
  1057. used together with GPL in any software.
  1058. 6.2 I have a closed-source program, can I use the libcurl library?
  1059. Yes!
  1060. libcurl does not put any restrictions on the program that uses the library.
  1061. 6.3 I have a BSD licensed program, can I use the libcurl library?
  1062. Yes!
  1063. libcurl does not put any restrictions on the program that uses the library.
  1064. 6.4 I have a program that uses LGPL libraries, can I use libcurl?
  1065. Yes!
  1066. The LGPL license doesn't clash with other licenses.
  1067. 6.5 Can I modify curl/libcurl for my program and keep the changes secret?
  1068. Yes!
  1069. The MIT/X derivate license practically allows you to do almost anything with
  1070. the sources, on the condition that the copyright texts in the sources are
  1071. left intact.
  1072. 6.6 Can you please change the curl/libcurl license to XXXX?
  1073. No.
  1074. We have carefully picked this license after years of development and
  1075. discussions and a large amount of people have contributed with source code
  1076. knowing that this is the license we use. This license puts the restrictions
  1077. we want on curl/libcurl and it does not spread to other programs or
  1078. libraries that use it. It should be possible for everyone to use libcurl or
  1079. curl in their projects, no matter what license they already have in use.
  1080. 6.7 What are my obligations when using libcurl in my commercial apps?
  1081. Next to none. All you need to adhere to is the MIT-style license (stated in
  1082. the COPYING file) which basically says you have to include the copyright
  1083. notice in "all copies" and that you may not use the copyright holder's name
  1084. when promoting your software.
  1085. You do not have to release any of your source code.
  1086. You do not have to reveal or make public any changes to the libcurl source
  1087. code.
  1088. You do not have to broadcast to the world that you are using libcurl within
  1089. your app.
  1090. All we ask is that you disclose "the copyright notice and this permission
  1091. notice" somewhere. Most probably like in the documentation or in the section
  1092. where other third party dependencies already are mentioned and acknowledged.
  1093. As can be seen here: https://curl.haxx.se/docs/companies.html and elsewhere,
  1094. more and more companies are discovering the power of libcurl and take
  1095. advantage of it even in commercial environments.
  1096. 7. PHP/CURL Issues
  1097. 7.1 What is PHP/CURL?
  1098. The module for PHP that makes it possible for PHP programs to access curl-
  1099. functions from within PHP.
  1100. In the cURL project we call this module PHP/CURL to differentiate it from
  1101. curl the command line tool and libcurl the library. The PHP team however
  1102. does not refer to it like this (for unknown reasons). They call it plain
  1103. CURL (often using all caps) or sometimes ext/curl, but both cause much
  1104. confusion to users which in turn gives us a higher question load.
  1105. 7.2 Who wrote PHP/CURL?
  1106. PHP/CURL was initially written by Sterling Hughes.
  1107. 7.3 Can I perform multiple requests using the same handle?
  1108. Yes - at least in PHP version 4.3.8 and later (this has been known to not
  1109. work in earlier versions, but the exact version when it started to work is
  1110. unknown to me).
  1111. After a transfer, you just set new options in the handle and make another
  1112. transfer. This will make libcurl re-use the same connection if it can.
  1113. 7.4 Does PHP/CURL have dependencies?
  1114. PHP/CURL is a module that comes with the regular PHP package. It depends on
  1115. and uses libcurl, so you need to have libcurl installed properly before
  1116. PHP/CURL can be used.