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  1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  2. <html newsdate="2016-11-10">
  3. <version>1</version>
  4. <head>
  5. <title>Russian Bill makes Free Software a Public Priority</title>
  6. </head>
  7. <body>
  8. <h1>Russian Bill makes Free Software a Public Priority</h1>
  9. <p>
  10. Legislators have drafted
  11. <a href="http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/addwork/scans.nsf/ID/15186D4536B068A54325804200466D57/$File/1187178-6.PDF?OpenElement">a bill</a>
  12. that will boost Free Software on multiple levels within the Russian
  13. Federation's public sector.</p>
  14. <p>The draft, approved by the Russian Federation's Duma (lower chamber)
  15. in mid-October, requires the public sector to prioritise Free Software over
  16. proprietary alternatives, gives precedence to local IT businesses that offer
  17. Free Software for public tenders, and recognises the need to encourage
  18. collaboration with the global network of Free Software organisations and
  19. communities.</p>
  20. <p>The text enforces prioritising Free Software over proprietary alternatives
  21. by requiring public administrations to formally justify any purchase of
  22. proprietary software. The purchase will be considered unjustified if a
  23. Free Software solution exists that satisfies the list of technical specifications
  24. and standards. In addition, all IT purchase agreements in the public
  25. sphere must be registered in a dedicated registrar and detail the overall
  26. quantity and price of both purchased proprietary and Free Software.</p>
  27. <p>In order to encourage local businesses, IT companies that distribute
  28. and provide Free Software products and services will by default receive
  29. bonus points in public tenders. With this measure, legislators intend to
  30. reduce the administration's dependency on foreign IT providers of proprietary
  31. software.</p>
  32. <p>Despite the above, the bill also recognises the universality of Free
  33. Software. As the legislators acknowledge in explanatory notes appended
  34. to the text, the concept of "Russian Free Software" is meaningless due
  35. to the global nature of Free Software. The text recognises the need to
  36. support Russian Free Software companies in order to better integrate into
  37. global Free Software communities.</p>
  38. <blockquote>
  39. <p>"[...]законопроект предлагает тем самым уйти от понятия «российское СПО»,
  40. поскольку наборы программных кодов, открытых по разного вида свободным
  41. лицензиям, представляют собой по сути единую мировую платформу[...]"</p>
  42. <p>English translation:</p>
  43. <p>[...]the draft bill suggests to withhold the concept of "Russian Free
  44. Software", because the source code available under different open licences
  45. represents in essence one global platform[...]</p>
  46. </blockquote>
  47. <p>Another interesting aspect of the law is how the authors of the bill
  48. have made an extra effort to ensure the language used in the draft are
  49. correct. For one, only software carrying licenses that allow
  50. <a href="https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">the four freedoms</a>
  51. may be legally labelled as "Free Software":</p>
  52. <blockquote>
  53. <p>"Свободное программное обеспечение (СПО) - программное обеспечение,
  54. имеющее открытый исходный код и распространяемое по открытым лицензиям на
  55. условиях специального лицензионного договора, на основании которого пользователь
  56. получает неограниченное право на его установку, запуск, а также свободное
  57. использование, изучение, распространение и изменение (модификацию) по своему
  58. усмотрению в любых, не запрещенных законом целях."</p>
  59. <p>English translation:</p>
  60. <p>"Free Software - software which is open source and distributed under
  61. open licences based on special licensing contract terms, allowing a user
  62. unrestricted right to install, run, use, study, distribute and modify it
  63. freely, according to one's needs and for purposes that are not restricted
  64. by law."</p>
  65. </blockquote>
  66. <p>Secondly, every time the bill text refers to the most famous free operating
  67. system, it refers to it as "GNU/Linux", not simply "Linux". This indicates
  68. an awareness not commonly found amongst authors of national legislations.</p>
  69. <p>"The bill is an example of public software procurement done right." says
  70. Polina Malaja, Policy Analyst and Legal Coordinator at the FSFE. "The FSFE
  71. has long advised having all public administrations prioritise Free Software
  72. and recommended that all software developed by and for the public sector
  73. be published under a Free Software licence. As the authors of the Russian
  74. bill have come to realise, without Free Software public administrations
  75. will never be able to claim they have real digital sovereignty. Other
  76. European administrations should take note."</p>
  77. </body>
  78. <tags>
  79. <tag key="front-page"/>
  80. <tag key="policy"/>
  81. <tag key="procurement"/>
  82. </tags>
  83. </html>