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  4. <title>Horizon 2020 Position Paper</title>
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  6. <body class="article" microformats="h-entry">
  7. <p id="category"><a href="/work.html">Our work</a></p>
  8. <h1 id="position-paper-for-the-endorsement-of-Free-Software-and-open-standards-in-horizon-2020-and-all-publicly-funded-research ">Position paper for the endorsement of Free Software and Open Standards in Horizon 2020 and all publicly-funded research </h1>
  9. <h2 id="overview">Overview</h2>
  10. <p>The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) is a charity that empowers
  11. users to control technology by advocating for Free Software. In a digital
  12. world, Free Software is the fundament of Open Knowledge, Open Innovation
  13. and Open Science.</p>
  14. <p>Software is an integral part of today’s society. Our daily interactions,
  15. transactions, education, communication channels, work and life environments
  16. rely heavily on software. "Free Software" refers to all programs
  17. distributed under terms and licences that allow users to run the software
  18. for any purpose, to study how the program works, to adapt the program to
  19. their needs, to improve the program and to distribute the improved version
  20. of it so that the general public can benefit. Source code is a precondition
  21. for a user to study how the program works. The Free Software ideals of
  22. transparency, openness and collaboration are very much the same as the
  23. principles endorsed in scientific community, theory and process, and will
  24. support scientific and technological innovation in Europe and worldwide.</p>
  25. <p><a href="">
  26. This paper</a> summarises the FSFE's key recommendations on the midterm
  27. evaluation of the Horizon 2020 and the European Commission' s efforts to
  28. draft the Framework Programme 2018-2020. Implementing these recommendations
  29. will unlock the full potential of Open Science and Open Access investments,
  30. which are at the core of Horizon 2020.</p>
  31. <blockquote>
  32. <p>In line with the European Parliament resolution of 19 January 2016
  33. "Towards a Digital Single Market Act" (2015/2147(INI)) and common practices
  34. in major research institutions such as MIT, CERN and others, the FSFE
  35. makes the following recommendations:</p>
  36. <ol>
  37. <li><p>Open Standards should be preferred for all knowledge
  38. exchange, and in particular for the dissemination of scientific publications
  39. and the archival of all articles, data, and software used in scientific
  40. research. The use of Open Standards in data and software repositories and
  41. Data Management Plans (DMPs) concerning the Horizon 2020 publications, is
  42. necessary to ensure data preservation and Open Science. Research Funding
  43. Organisations should take the lead and foster changes of business models when
  44. dealing with research data.</p></li>
  45. <li><p>Software developed with public funding, and in particular
  46. in the framework of the Horizon2020 programme should be mandatorily published
  47. under a Free Software licence.</p></li>
  48. <li><p>Software developed with public funding, and in particular
  49. in the framework of the Horizon2020 programme should be mandatorily archived
  50. in a public software repository ensuring long term availability and persistent
  51. identification.</p></li>
  52. <li><p>Data and software repositories and Data Management Plans (DMPs)
  53. must employ Free Software in order to ensure unfettered access to their
  54. contents and long term preservation.</p></li>
  55. <li><p>An "Open Science" Prize should be established to raise awareness
  56. and promote Open Science.</p></li>
  57. </ol>
  58. </blockquote>
  59. <h2 id="introduction">Introduction</h2>
  60. <h3 id="a-free-software-project-is-like-a-scientific-process">A Free Software project is like a scientific process</h3>
  61. <p>Free Software ideals are very similar to those which are fundamental
  62. to the scientific method. Both, Free Software and scientific theory, are
  63. based on transparency, openness and collaboration.</p>
  64. <p>One of the pillars of the scientific method, is the ability to
  65. formulate a scientific theory and then test and improve it by independently
  66. reproducing and verifying it via scientific experiments.</p>
  67. <p>Another essential pillar is the openness of scientific results to the
  68. whole scientific community to allow further research or validation. A
  69. scientific theory receives acceptance when the data and the method that
  70. has been used to work out the theory are available in full.</p>
  71. <p>A scientific theory gains validation by its openness of data and methods
  72. which allow additional evidence to be gathered. It is an inherent part for
  73. a scientific theory to be rejected, approved or modified. Over time, as
  74. successive modifications build on top of each other, theories consistently
  75. improve and greater predictive accuracy is achieved. Different theories
  76. complement each other and create an environment of science and knowledge
  77. that is open to humanity to use, study, share and improve.</p>
  78. <p>In a similar way, Free Software embodies the spirit of openness of data
  79. and methods (source code), verification and collaboration. As software is
  80. written code, it can be shared and improved like any other written knowledge
  81. or information. Free Software in this respect refers to all programs
  82. distributed under terms and licences that allow everyone to run the software
  83. for any purpose, to study how the program works, to adapt the program to their
  84. needs and improve it, while being able to distribute the improved version of
  85. the program so the general public can benefit from it.<a href="#fn1" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref1"><sup>1</sup></a></p>
  86. <p>Using and furthering Free Software means that the code is open to be
  87. used and improved by private companies, organisations, public institutions
  88. and the general public. Improvements of the software are available for the
  89. public, so the whole society benefits. And just like in the world of
  90. science, different pieces of Free Software complement each other and create an
  91. environment of software and knowledge that is open to humanity.</p>
  92. <p>Open Science, one of the main principles promoted by Horizon 2020, acknowledges
  93. how important it is for the future of Europe to have large-scale interactions
  94. in the research community, as this will speed up discovery and innovation.
  95. As OECD puts it in its latest Outlook report, Open Science is the next
  96. frontier.<a href="#fn2" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref2"><sup>2</sup></a></p>
  97. <p>Nowadays, software is an integral part of nearly all modern research
  98. from data aggregation to the application of methods and the calculation
  99. of final results. Talking about "Open Science" means in this respect the
  100. openness of the software, the data and the file formats that are in use.
  101. Only the openness of the digital environment will allow modern research
  102. to further share the data and methods in use of their research and to keep
  103. open the environment of science and knowledge. This openness is in need
  104. of the use and development of Free Software.</p>
  105. <p>In addition, the European Commission (EC) believes that as change accelerate
  106. and instability becomes the new norm, public engagement with science becomes
  107. key for Europe<a href="#fn3" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref3"><sup>3</sup></a>.
  108. As we have seen, the freedom of the software to be used allows the general
  109. public and private companies to participate in the improvement of the sources.
  110. This means that the use of Free Software and Open Standards allows a boost
  111. in scientific tools and new modes of private engagement like citizen science. </p>
  112. <h3 id="significance-of-software-nowadays">Significance of software nowadays</h3>
  113. <p>Software is a vital part of today’s society. Our daily lives, communication, interaction
  114. and the way we distribute and share information and knowledge is unimaginable
  115. without software. The digital revolution has meant almost every process
  116. or product relies on software, revealing the latter's big economic value. Just
  117. as scientific research has included the use of digital technology, software
  118. has become an integral part of modern research across all disciplines <a href="#fn4" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref4"><sup>4</sup></a>.</p>
  119. <p>Conducting reliable research requires the scientific method to be transparent
  120. in order to be able to reproduce under the same circumstances. When Free
  121. Software is not used in scientific research, the possibility to do so is
  122. limited as the researcher lacks full access to the software used. This makes
  123. it impossible for the rest of the research community to access essential
  124. parts of the method that was used for the findings.</p>
  125. <p>For accessibility, reproduction and transparency in scientific research,
  126. the use of Free Software is inevitable. Some authors identify the movement
  127. towards a Free Software development of technology as part of the megatrends
  128. that will drive innovation and change the face of the world the next years.<a href="#fn5" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref5"><sup>5</sup></a></p>
  129. <h3 id="why-is-free-software-important-for-scientific-research">Why is Free Software important for scientific research?</h3>
  130. <p>The FSFE believes that in order to be valid, research has to be conducted
  131. using Free Software, as it is the only way to ensure fully transparent
  132. access to its methodology. To choose a software that is not published
  133. under a Free Software licence<a href="#fn6" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref6"><sup>6</sup></a>, is a
  134. choice against transparency.</p>
  135. <p>To illustrate the importance, we can look into the recent Volkswagen emissions
  136. scandal. A scandal that revealed Volkswagen had intentionally programmed
  137. diesel engines to cheat during laboratory emissions testing. As a result
  138. of these software manipulations, it was later known that the Volkswagen
  139. engines emitted nitrogen oxide pollutants up to 40 times above what is
  140. allowed in the US,<a href="#fn7" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref7"><sup>7</sup></a> while
  141. test results showed the cars to meet allowed US standards. The software
  142. was revealed by a group of private researchers after years of independent
  143. research.</p>
  144. <p>The Volkswagen case shows how important the reliability of software is for
  145. scientific metrics, method applications and calculation of results. Other
  146. software leaves researchers in uncertainty and in the uncomfortable position
  147. to take results as granted instead of having the possibility to testify
  148. and verify them. Free Software instead, as argued above, offers transparency
  149. and verification of the whole research process.</p>
  150. <p>However, the benefits of Free Software go way beyond the matter of
  151. transparency and accessibility. Free Software also offers the only way for
  152. scientific research to be sustainable and accessible in the long run. Free
  153. Software offers no legal costs and less legal uncertainty when it comes
  154. to the reuse and distribution of software used in research projects, making
  155. it perfect for transnational scientific collaboration, which is on the
  156. rise.<a href="#fn8" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref8"><sup>8</sup></a> The use
  157. of Free Software in publicly funded research would boost cooperation inside
  158. the European science community and reduce research cost. Free Software is
  159. reusable multiple times and not subject to the restrictions and barriers
  160. imposed by other software.</p>
  161. <p>As the scientific research community relies more and more on digital
  162. data repositories to manage and disseminate scientific data, it is crucial
  163. the underlying systems that run these repositories are based on Free
  164. Software and offer their content in Open Standards.<a href="#fn9" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref9"><sup>9</sup></a></p>
  165. <p>Digital preservation requires an ability for information stored or encoded
  166. in one technology to be migrated to another data format, operating system
  167. or hardware. It is inevitable and unavoidable. For this purpose, only
  168. repositories that are based on Free Software and Open Standards can guarantee
  169. long-term preservation and universal access to the data, as they allow the
  170. biggest interoperability between different technologies.</p>
  171. <p>In contrast, software repositories based on closed incompatible standards
  172. may produce technological incompatibilities, limitation of the universal
  173. access and possibly higher costs of maintenance and future migration processes.</p>
  174. <h2 id="recommendations">Recommendations</h2>
  175. <h3 id="data-preservation-and-open-science-through-open-standards">Data preservation and Open Science through Open Standards</h3>
  176. <blockquote>
  177. <p>Open Standards should be preferred for all knowledge exchange, and
  178. in particular for the dissemination of scientific publications and the
  179. archival of all articles, data, and software used in scientific research. The
  180. use of Open Standards in data and software repositories and Data
  181. Management Plans (DMPs) concerning the Horizon 2020 publications, is
  182. necessary to ensure data preservation and Open Science. Research Funding
  183. Organisations should take the lead and foster changes of business models
  184. when dealing with research data.</p>
  185. </blockquote>
  186. <p>Open Standards are the foundation of cooperation in modern society.<a href="#fn10" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref10"><sup>10</sup></a>
  187. They allow people to share data freely, prevent vendor lock-in and other
  188. artificial barriers to interoperability, and promote choice among vendors
  189. and technology solutions.<a href="#fn11" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref11"><sup>11</sup></a></p>
  190. <p>The best example of the significant value of interoperability and Open
  191. Standards is the World Wide Web. If the World Wide Web was stripped of
  192. its interoperability features, the Web as we know it today would never
  193. have existed. The Internet itself grew mainly thanks to widely shared
  194. protocols and standards<a href="#fn12" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref12"><sup>12</sup></a>, that are
  195. easily accessible to everyone.</p>
  196. <p>Regarding Open Knowledge and Open Science, the whole research process
  197. should be structured upon comprehensive policies that encompass measures
  198. related to the reuse and re-distribution of scientific data, ensuring
  199. universal participation and cooperation. These measures must be taken
  200. into account at all levels of a scientific process when designing, creating,
  201. disseminating and evaluating data, information and knowledge.<a href="#fn13" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref13"><sup>13</sup></a></p>
  202. <p>The FSFE therefore suggests the full endorsement of Open Standards,
  203. defined hereinafter, as a necessary condition to ensure data preservation
  204. and Open Science. An Open Standard
  205. <a href="#fn14" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref14"><sup>14</sup></a> refers
  206. to a format or protocol that is:</p>
  207. <ul>
  208. <li><p>subject to full public assessment and use without constraints in
  209. a manner equally available to all parties;</p></li>
  210. <li><p>without any components or extensions that have dependencies on
  211. formats or protocols that do not meet the definition of an Open Standard themselves;</p></li>
  212. <li><p>free from legal or technical clauses that limit its utilisation
  213. by any party or in any business model;</p></li>
  214. <li><p>managed and further developed independently of any single vendor
  215. in a process open to the equal participation of competitors and third parties;</p></li>
  216. <li><p>available in multiple complete implementations by competing
  217. vendors, or as a complete implementation equally available to all parties.</p></li>
  218. </ul>
  219. <p>The FSFE suggests that this definition is included in the Guidelines
  220. on Open Access Policy and that Open Standards become mandatory for data
  221. repositories and DMPs concerning the Horizon 2020 publications.</p>
  222. <h3 id="free-software-as-the-default-option-for-horizon-2020">Free Software as the default option for Horizon 2020</h3>
  223. <blockquote>
  224. <p>Software developed with public funding, and in particular in the
  225. framework of the Horizon2020 programme should be mandatorily published
  226. under a Free Software licence.</p>
  227. </blockquote>
  228. <p>The FSFE calls for all software being developed in-house or by service
  229. partners paid with public money or public-private partnerships to be
  230. published under a Free Software licence. This way, the solutions developed
  231. by one research institution can be reused and distributed to other
  232. educational establishments and research institutions.</p>
  233. <p>Several European research organisations and institutions are 'locked'
  234. into their ICT systems because knowledge about how the system works is
  235. available only to their specific vendor. This means every time they need
  236. to purchase new components or licences, only a single vendor can provide
  237. them. This severe lack of competition leads to higher prices and
  238. some € 1.1 billion per year is lost unnecessarily, in the public sector
  239. alone.<a href="#fn15" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref15"><sup>15</sup></a> Reusable
  240. solutions, on the other hand, that are easily adaptable and customisable
  241. independently from a single vendor will help to reduce the possibility
  242. of ICT vendor lock-in in all fields heavily dependant on software
  243. solutions<a href="#fn16" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref16"><sup>16</sup></a>.</p>
  244. <p>Releasing publicly funded software as Free Software also benefits
  245. society at large, as software can be reused, further developed and improved
  246. by everyone outside of the single public institution. Improvements can
  247. be done by single persons, other public institutions or even private
  248. companies. This way, everyone can benefit. In other words, the demand
  249. for publicly funded software to be published as Free Software underlines
  250. the need for "Science with and for Society", as described in the Work
  251. Programme 2018-2020.<a href="#fn17" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref17"><sup>17</sup></a></p>
  252. <p>In this respect, the FSFE calls for full implementation of the European
  253. Parliament resolution of 19 January 2016 "Towards a Digital Single
  254. Market Act" (2015/2147(INI)) where the European Parliament urges
  255. the European Commission to increase the share of Free Software and its
  256. reuse in and between public administrations as a solution to increase
  257. interoperability.<a href="#fn18" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref18"><sup>18</sup></a>
  258. Additionally, the European Parliament demands that the EU 2020 strategy’s
  259. research and innovation targets include […] "the increased use of free and open
  260. source software, particularly in educational establishments and public
  261. administrations, and easier access for SMEs and start-ups to Horizon 2020
  262. funding adapted to the short innovation cycles of the ICT
  263. sector[emphasis added]."<a href="#fn19" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref19"><sup>19</sup></a></p>
  264. <p>The FSFE supports the European Parliament's demands and asks the European
  265. Commission to take these demands duly into consideration when drafting
  266. the Work Programme 2018-2020.</p>
  267. <p>Such a decision also goes in hand with prominent international public
  268. institutions that are using Free Software licences to release software
  269. that was funded and/or developed with public funds. In the USA, many
  270. public universities (e.g. MIT) and institutions (e.g. NASA) publish most
  271. of their software that does not contain any sensitive data, as Free
  272. Software. In Europe, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN),
  273. an institution that is at the forefront of scientific and technological
  274. advancement, is basing its infrastructure on Free Software, and has a long
  275. tradition of Open Access.</p>
  276. <h3 id="endorsing-free-software-as-part-of-open-science">Endorsing Free Software as part of Open Science</h3>
  277. <h4 id="the-principle-of-openness-in-horizon2020"><strong>The Principle of Openness in Horizon 2020</strong></h4>
  278. <p>Horizon 2020 is the financial instrument implementing the Innovation
  279. Union which is the Europe 2020 flagship initiative aiming at securing
  280. Europe's global competitiveness. Its primary goal is to invest EU funds
  281. in scientific research for the common good.<a href="#fn20" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref20"><sup>20</sup></a> Such common
  282. good can be scientific advances and technological inventions that ensure
  283. better living conditions, cure for incurable diseases, a growing employment
  284. environment and a sustainable future for the generations to come.</p>
  285. <p>The produced knowledge should also be treated as a public good that will
  286. boost innovation and lead progress in Europe and beyond. As stated in the
  287. Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data
  288. in Horizon 2020, “the Europe 2020 strategy for a smart, sustainable and
  289. inclusive economy underlines the central role of knowledge and innovation
  290. in generating growth.”<a href="#fn21" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref21"><sup>21</sup></a></p>
  291. <p>According to Robert K. Merton, the results of scientific work are the
  292. results of cooperative efforts and must be made available to all
  293. scientists<a href="#fn22" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref22"><sup>22</sup></a>. In the
  294. digital age, this approach is translated as demand for Open Access and Open Science
  295. based on Open Standards and Free Software, because the latter two contribute
  296. not only to scientific but also to social progress. New possibilities of
  297. sharing and access to information will boost knowledge management and
  298. enable new modes of civil participation like the so-called citizen's
  299. science.<a href="#fn23" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref23"><sup>23</sup></a></p>
  300. <p>So far, Open Access and Open Science try to grow from a theory to a
  301. reality.<a href="#fn24" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref24"><sup>24</sup></a> However, for
  302. the time being the reality of access to scientific data is that only a
  303. very small number of publications are openly accessible,<a href="#fn25" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref25"><sup>25</sup></a> despite
  304. the fact that more and more scientists choose Open Access models for the
  305. publication of results.<a href="#fn26" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref26"><sup>26</sup></a></p>
  306. <p>Two recent European Commission public consultations showed that researchers,
  307. libraries, funders and businesses believe that the access to scientific
  308. information is problematic and this is a key barrier to the circulation
  309. of knowledge in Europe. Respondents to these consultations indicated Open
  310. Access as the key tool to overcome limitations. Over 90% of respondents
  311. believed publications resulting from publicly funded research should be
  312. available by open access.<a href="#fn27" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref27"><sup>27</sup></a></p>
  313. <p>Open Access practices are well into play already in the anglo-saxon
  314. world. Specifically in the U.S., any work wholly financed by federal funds
  315. must be freely accessible to all,<a href="#fn28" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref28"><sup>28</sup></a> while
  316. the so-called Public Access to Science Act, aims to extend this to any
  317. research work that receives major funding from public resources.<a href="#fn29" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref29"><sup>29</sup></a> In the
  318. UK, all publicly funded work is being published under the Open Government
  319. Licence that grants access and reuse rights to everyone.</p>
  320. <p>Thus, it is time for the European Union to take initiative. Scientific
  321. data and results paid with public money should be made available to the
  322. public.<a href="#fn30" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref30"><sup>30</sup></a> In
  323. particular, publicly funded research must not disappear or lose its value
  324. due to payment barriers and private commercial interests.<a href="#fn31" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref31"><sup>31</sup></a></p>
  325. <p>On the contrary, publicly funded research should become accessible to
  326. the public in efficient and sufficient ways. This will help the global
  327. scientific community and will strengthen the reputation of European
  328. science and European institutions within the EU. A good Open Access strategy
  329. will put the European Union in the forefront of a modern and digital science
  330. community.<a href="#fn32" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref32"><sup>32</sup></a> Research
  331. institutions and universities all over the world call for Open Access and
  332. are engaged in collective initiatives for its promotion or have created
  333. their own Open Access policies.<a href="#fn33" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref33"><sup>33</sup></a></p>
  334. <p>In addition, free public access to all publicly funded research is
  335. already described by the European Commission as "a vision of the future"; of
  336. Open Science not only in Europe, but globally for the year 2030.<a href="#fn34" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref34"><sup>34</sup></a></p>
  337. <br></br>
  338. <h4 id="inclusion-of-software-under-open-access"><strong>Inclusion of software under Open Access</strong></h4>
  339. <blockquote>
  340. <p>The software used or developed during scientific research, as integral
  341. part of scientific data should be covered by Open Access rules.</p>
  342. </blockquote>
  343. <p>The FSFE endorses the conclusions drawn by the Council of the European
  344. Union towards an Open Science system and acknowledges that unnecessary
  345. legal, organisational and financial barriers to access results of publicly
  346. funded research should be removed as much as possible.<a href="#fn35" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref35"><sup>35</sup></a></p>
  347. <p>Based on the specific aspects presented in the first Annex of the
  348. Background Paper to the consultation on potential strategy and priorities
  349. for research and innovation in the Horizon 2020 “Science with and for Society” Work
  350. Programme 2018-2020<a href="#fn36" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref36"><sup>36</sup></a>, Free
  351. Software can be considered as deeply related to the most important aspects
  352. of it, such as public engagement, science education, ethics, open access
  353. and governance.</p>
  354. <p>To specify, Free Software could be incorporated in many of the "Science
  355. With and For Society" Advisory Group's suggestions and in particular
  356. concerning the following points: encouraging the youth to follow scientific
  357. and technological careers, promoting the so-called citizens' science, and
  358. more importantly, developing the accessibility and (re-)use of the results
  359. of publicly-funded research.<a href="#fn37" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref37"><sup>37</sup></a></p>
  360. <p>On the other side, in the EC Guidelines on Open Access, special attention
  361. is drawn upon the benefits of the broader access to scientific publications
  362. and data, including software and software tools/applications. The guidelines
  363. specifically encourage projects to provide information and access to specialised
  364. software or code in order to validate the results.<a href="#fn38" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref38"><sup>38</sup></a></p>
  365. <p>Taking a closer look, it is obvious that benefits of Open Access do
  366. coincide with the four freedoms provided by Free Software licences: to
  367. use software, to study how it works, to share it with others, and to
  368. improve it according to one's needs. Thus, Open Access should not be
  369. merely understood as "free online access to publication", but
  370. instead to receive a more sophisticated definition, including the four
  371. specific freedoms.</p>
  372. <p>In particular, the ability to build upon previous research results,
  373. which leads to improved quality of results, is a synonym to the freedom
  374. to improve the given software, based on previously developed code ["standing
  375. on the shoulder of giants"]. The encouragement of collaboration among the
  376. scientists and the avoidance of duplication or greater effort, coincides
  377. with the freedoms to use and to share software. Involving citizens and
  378. society, ensuring greater transparency of the scientific process is
  379. similar to the freedom to study how the software works. This means that
  380. there are no obstacles in logically extending EU Open Access policies to
  381. software. It is also noteworthy, that historically, Open Access movement
  382. has been closely related to Free Software that helped to shape the existing
  383. principles and ideas of Open Access as we know it today.<a href="#fn39" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref39"><sup>39</sup></a> Consequently, there
  384. is no reason to deny the treatment of software on the equal level with
  385. scientific publications and data from scientific research as a part of
  386. broader Open Science movement.</p>
  387. <p>In addition, the four freedoms granted by Free Software speed-up
  388. innovation, which in turn leads to faster market access and growth.<a href="#fn40" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref40"><sup>40</sup></a> The Commissioner
  389. for Research, Science and Innovation Carlos Moedas has repeatedly emphasised
  390. on the importance of Open Innovation and Open Science for the overall
  391. growth of a society.<a href="#fn41" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref41"><sup>41</sup></a></p>
  392. <p>Therefore, in a future revision of the European Commission's policy on
  393. Open Access and more specifically, the Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific
  394. Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020,<a href="#fn42" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref42"><sup>42</sup></a> the FSFE
  395. suggests the inclusion of an annex for publishing software under FSF and
  396. OSI approved licences.<a href="#fn43" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref43"><sup>43</sup></a> Moreover, we
  397. consider that Free Software and Open Standards should be explicit part
  398. of the Strategic Foresight,<a href="#fn44" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref44"><sup>44</sup></a> the
  399. report which aims to support the preparation of the third strategic
  400. programme of Horizon 2020 (2018-2020), under the umbrella of Open Science.</p>
  401. <p>It should be made clear that publishing software under Free Software licences
  402. does not mean that the researchers cannot have a financial profit out of
  403. their work<a href="#fn45" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref45"><sup>45</sup></a>. It only means
  404. that their code carries the four freedoms.<a href="#fn46" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref46"><sup>46</sup></a> If there
  405. are no specific ad hoc restrictions, there is no problem with the adoption
  406. of a Free Software licence over the project results. Free Software
  407. licensing might provide for better visibility, outreach and re-use of
  408. the results and could therefore be beneficial to the overall impact of
  409. the project in the scientific community.<a href="#fn47" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref47"><sup>47</sup></a></p>
  410. <p>This is in accordance with the Open Access interpretation under
  411. Horizon 2020, as the online access to scientific publications, at no
  412. charge to the end-user.<a href="#fn48" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref48"><sup>48</sup></a> Open Access
  413. therefore only aims at making the work of the researchers as widely accessible
  414. as possible – it does not aim at putting the publications in the public
  415. domain,<a href="#fn49" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref49"><sup>49</sup></a> nor to
  416. allow the public to reproduce or redistribute a work without its owner’s
  417. consent.<a href="#fn50" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref50"><sup>50</sup></a></p>
  418. <br></br>
  419. <h4 id="open-access-as-the-default-option-for-publications"><strong>Open Access as the default option for publications</strong></h4>
  420. <blockquote>
  421. <p>Open Access is and should remain the default option for the
  422. scientific publications of Horizon 2020 projects. Opting-out should be
  423. an exception, strictly interpreted.</p>
  424. </blockquote>
  425. <p>Open Access is the default option for scientific publications of Horizon
  426. 2020 projects, but there is still the possibility for the scientists to
  427. opt-out.<a href="#fn51" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref51"><sup>51</sup></a></p>
  428. <p>The FSFE asks for full implementation of the extension of the Open Research
  429. Data Pilot<a href="#fn52" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref52"><sup>52</sup></a> and
  430. in particular, "projects should provide information via the chosen public
  431. repository about the tools available to the beneficiaries that are needed
  432. to validate the results, e.g. specialised software or software code, algorithms
  433. and analysis protocols. Where possible, they should provide these
  434. instruments themselves." That being said, this information should include,
  435. not only code but also all the necessary documentation that ensures the
  436. reusability of software.</p>
  437. <p>Opting-out should be interpreted strictly and be permitted exceptionally, in accordance
  438. with public interest.<a href="#fn53" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref53"><sup>53</sup></a> It should
  439. also be valid only under very specific circumstances, as in accordance
  440. with the EC policy on Open Access <a href="#fn54" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref54"><sup>54</sup></a> and
  441. the meeting of the Competitiveness Council in Brussels on 27 May, 2016. In
  442. this meeting, the EU ministers responsible for research and innovation
  443. decided unanimously that by 2020 all scientific publications on the
  444. results of publicly funded research in Europe must be freely available
  445. under Open Access.<a href="#fn55" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref55"><sup>55</sup></a></p>
  446. <br></br>
  447. <h4 id="maximum-transparency-during-evaluation-and-interests-balance"><strong>Maximum transparency during evaluation and interests balance</strong></h4>
  448. <blockquote>
  449. <p>In the case of public funding of private organisations or public-private
  450. funding, the maximum transparency during the evaluation process of the
  451. projects should be guaranteed and an in-depth case-by-case assessment of
  452. interests balance should take place, always in favor of Open Access.</p>
  453. </blockquote>
  454. <p>Under the Horizon 2020 criteria, only legal entities and international
  455. European interest organisations are eligible for funding opportunities, excluding
  456. natural persons. That means not only universities or other state research
  457. organisations can get funded, but also private for-profit organisations.</p>
  458. <p>The FSFE calls for the maximum transparency during the evaluation
  459. processes of the projects and an in-depth case-by-case assessment of interests
  460. balance, in particular when private interests interfere with public interests. In
  461. other words, the FSFE welcomes and supports the Commission's position
  462. that it should not make a difference for Open Access application, whether
  463. the scientific publications on the results of research are supported by
  464. public or public-private funds.<a href="#fn56" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref56"><sup>56</sup></a></p>
  465. <p>The Horizon 2020 research results (including software) must be freely
  466. accessible to everyone,<a href="#fn57" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref57"><sup>57</sup></a> since
  467. it is required by the relevant EC documents that all the scientific
  468. publications of the results of publicly funded research (including private-public
  469. funds) are freely available and all the research data reusable. To achieve
  470. that, data must be made accessible, unless there are well-founded reasons
  471. establishing the opposite, for example, security or privacy issues.<a href="#fn58" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref58"><sup>58</sup></a> The
  472. latter exceptions, however, need to be strictly interpreted and balanced
  473. out with other public objectives.</p>
  474. <p>It is necessary to keep in mind that Open Access to publicly funded
  475. research data not only helps to maximise the research potential of new
  476. digital technologies and networks, but provides greater returns from the
  477. public investment in research.<a href="#fn59" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref59"><sup>59</sup></a></p>
  478. <h3 id="repositories-for-scientific-publications-data-and-software">Repositories for Scientific Publications, Data and Software</h3>
  479. <blockquote>
  480. <p>Software developed with public funding, and in particular in the framework
  481. of the Horizon2020 programme should be mandatorily archived in a public
  482. software repository ensuring long term availability and persistent identification.</p>
  483. </blockquote>
  484. <p>The Free Software Foundation Europe encourages the archiving of the
  485. scientific knowledge, including software, in public repositories for
  486. further use both by researchers and civil society.</p>
  487. <p>According to “Digital science in Horizon 2020”, openness of research
  488. is defined as the only way to enhance the value of scientific knowledge
  489. by ensuring its accessibility for all, through online media.<a href="#fn60" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref60"><sup>60</sup></a> This
  490. visibility also contributes to the quality, transparency and reproducibility
  491. of the research results. Nevertheless, this visibility can only be secured
  492. when open, immediate and free access to scientific results, including the
  493. software and models used for results generation, is ensured.</p>
  494. <p>The FSFE welcomes the Open Research Data Pilot and other EC-initiated
  495. public repository initiatives such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC)
  496. and the JoinUp repository for code developed by and for public administrations
  497. across Europe.</p>
  498. <p>Taking into account the First report and recommendations on the European
  499. Open Science Cloud, the FSFE would like to endorse the FAIR principles which
  500. will guide implementations to make research objects Findable, Accessible,
  501. Interoperable, Re-usable and ultimately citable. <a href="#fn61" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref61"><sup>61</sup></a> The FSFE
  502. would like to emphasise that the FAIR terms are fully compliant with Free
  503. Software.</p>
  504. <blockquote>
  505. <p>Data and software repositories and Data Management Plans (DMPs) must
  506. employ Free Software in order to ensure unfettered access to their contents
  507. and long term preservation.</p>
  508. </blockquote>
  509. <p>The FSFE insists that not only the scientific data on these platforms
  510. shall be open, but also the software these platforms run with should be
  511. made publicly available as Free Software, guaranteeing the preservation
  512. of digital knowledge over the years.</p>
  513. <p>OpenAIRE is a great example of a Free Software archiving platform which
  514. is interoperable and reusable. With almost 17.5 m publications from the
  515. EU and in cooperation with the biggest South American repository La
  516. Referencia, it has become the largest inter-regional network for the hosting
  517. and distribution of Open Access publications in the world.<a href="#fn62" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref62"><sup>62</sup></a></p>
  518. <p>Zenodo, the CERN supported platform, is another good practice amongst
  519. repositories. It is "open in every sense", runs and is built
  520. on Free Software. The relevant work-in-progress, open issues, and roadmaps
  521. are shared openly on GitHub and contributions to any aspect or suggestions
  522. for new features are welcome from anyone. All meta data is openly
  523. available, and all open content is openly accessible through open APIs.<a href="#fn63" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref63"><sup>63</sup></a></p>
  524. <p>The Software Heritage Initiative, that is now archiving not only source
  525. code of research software, but all available software worldwide, is another
  526. great example to adopt and support in the framework of Open Science. It is
  527. a reference software repository built entirely on Free Software, its development
  528. and design go through an open process, it provides persistent, long term, intrinsic
  529. identifiers, essential for reproducibility of science, and is building an
  530. international open network of mirrors in order to ensure long term
  531. availability of its archive.</p>
  532. <p>Last but not least, the open knowledge policy of the JPI Climate, the
  533. EFSA (European Food Safety Agency) Knowledge Junction and the CERN Data
  534. Portal also constitute good practices of Open Science.</p>
  535. <h3 id="open-science-prizes">"Open Science" Prizes</h3>
  536. <blockquote>
  537. <p>An "Open Science" Prize should be established to raise awareness and
  538. promote Open Science.</p>
  539. </blockquote>
  540. <p>With regards to the General Findings of the Public consultation on the
  541. Science with and for Society Work Programme 2016-2017<a href="#fn64" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref64"><sup>64</sup></a>,
  542. under the section “Open Science”, it was a general demand from the contributors
  543. that the knowledge around concepts of open data and shared data is
  544. developed; and that proposals on how Open Science could be part of reward
  545. systems and incentives for Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)
  546. activities are explored.</p>
  547. <p>The same reference is also part of the priorities scheme in the Report
  548. for the EOSC, where it is stated "[...]improve funding and rewards for
  549. open data sharing at research performing organisations and funders".<a href="#fn65" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref65"><sup>65</sup></a>
  550. The FSFE considers excellence should be awarded in every case and especially,
  551. when researchers provide their scientific results for the public good.</p>
  552. <p>Taking into account the existing Horizon 2020 Prizes and the increasing
  553. number of Horizon 2020 projects based on Free Software, we believe an “Open Science”
  554. Prize should be established, including secondary categories specifically
  555. intended for projects using or developing Free Software. These prizes shall
  556. reward researchers who develop software and release it as Free Software.
  557. This way, not only scientists who promote Open Science will be honoured
  558. for their work, but also awareness concerning the benefits of Open Access
  559. and Open Science will be raised among participating universities, schools,
  560. private entities and other stakeholders.</p>
  561. <p>The European Commission has already taken the lead, launching the "Sharing
  562. and Reuse Awards Contes" in order to raise awareness about the benefits of
  563. sharing and reuse of IT solutions in the public sector, awarding a total
  564. of €100 000 to public administrations that share and re-use Free Software
  565. solutions.<a href="#fn66" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref66"><sup>66</sup></a></p>
  566. <p>In addition to its positive effects on Open Science, an "Open Science"
  567. Prize would also clearly benefit RRI.<a href="#fn67" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref67"><sup>67</sup></a> RRI requires
  568. from the researcher during the whole scientific process to consider the
  569. requirements of Science For society and Science With Society,<a href="#fn68" class="footnoteRef" id="fnref68"><sup>68</sup></a> in order
  570. to meet global societal needs through increased inter-disciplinary collaboration
  571. between researchers, and to conduct responsible research. The use of Free
  572. Software fully endorses the notion of RRI, because through easily verifiable
  573. and accessible research it maximises both the collaboration between researchers
  574. in various fields, and the accuracy of the results produced via research. As
  575. such, by using and endorsing Free Software, one conducts fully responsible
  576. research, making its methods available for further verification and
  577. improvement by others.</p>
  578. <p></p>
  579. <div class="footnotes">
  580. <hr />
  581. <ol>
  582. <li id="fn1"><p>Free Software, also known as "open source". See more: <a href="">Free Software Foundation, What is Free Software?</a> [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref1">↩</a></p></li>
  583. <li id="fn2"><p>OECD (2016), OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing Paris.<a href="#fnref2">↩</a></p></li>
  584. <li id="fn3"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">Strategic Foresight: Towards the 3rd Strategic Programme of Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels 2016, p.43 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref3">↩</a></p></li>
  585. <li id="fn4"><p>American Scientist, <a href="">How Do Scientists Really Use Computers?</a> [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref4">↩</a></p></li>
  586. <li id="fn5"><p>OECD (2016), OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing, Paris.<a href="#fnref5">↩</a></p></li>
  587. <li id="fn6"><p>Free Software licence as approved by <a href="">the Free Software Foundation</a> and <a href="">the Open Source Initiative</a>. <a href="#fnref6">↩</a></p></li>
  588. <li id="fn7"><p>Hotten, R. (10 December 2015) <a href="">Volkswagen: The scandal explained, British Broadcasting Corporation</a> [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref7">↩</a></p></li>
  589. <li id="fn8"><p>OECD, OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing, Paris.<a href="#fnref8">↩</a></p></li>
  590. <li id="fn9"><p>Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE), <a href="">Open Standards</a> [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref9">↩</a></p></li>
  591. <li id="fn10"><p>Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE), <a href="">Open Standards</a> [accessed 20/11/2016].<a href="#fnref10">↩</a></p></li>
  592. <li id="fn11"><p>Wikibooks, <a href="">FOSS Open Standards/Importance and Benefits of Open Standards</a> [accessed 20/11/2016].<a href="#fnref11">↩</a></p></li>
  593. <li id="fn12"><p>JPI Climate symposium, <a href="">Report on “Designing Comprehensive Open Knowledge Policies to Face Climate Change”</a>, Vienna, October 2015 [accessed 20/11/2016].<a href="#fnref12">↩</a></p></li>
  594. <li id="fn13"><p>Aliprandi, Simone (2011), Interoperability and open standards: the key to true openness and innovation, in: International Free and Open Source Software Law Review, 3(1), pp 5 – 24, DOI: 10.5033/ifosslr.v3i1.53 .<a href="#fnref13">↩</a></p></li>
  595. <li id="fn14"><p>Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE), <a href="">Open Standards definition</a> [accessed 20/11/2016].<a href="#fnref14">↩</a></p></li>
  596. <li id="fn15"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions, Against lock-in: building open ICT systems by making better use of standards in public procurement</a>, Brussels, June 2013<a href="#fnref15">↩</a></p></li>
  597. <li id="fn16"><p>Ibid.<a href="#fnref16">↩</a></p></li>
  598. <li id="fn17"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Annex 1 - Background Paper to the Consultation on potential strategy and priorities for research and innovation in the Horizon 2020 "Science with and for Society" Work Programme 2018-2020</a>, Brussels, March 2016 [accessed 24/11/2016].<a href="#fnref17">↩</a></p></li>
  599. <li id="fn18"><p>European Parliament, <a href="">Resolution of 19 January 2016 on Towards a Digital Single Market Act (2015/2147(INI)</a>, Point 110 [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref18">↩</a></p></li>
  600. <li id="fn19"><p>Ibid, Point 125.<a href="#fnref19">↩</a></p></li>
  601. <li id="fn20"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Communication from the Commission “Europe 2020 - A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth"</a>, Brussels, March 2010 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref20">↩</a></p></li>
  602. <li id="fn21"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">H2020 Programme - Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020 v. 3.1.</a>, Brussels, August 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref21">↩</a></p></li>
  603. <li id="fn22"><p>Merton, R. K., The Normative Structure of Science, in Merton, Robert K., The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations,University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1973.<a href="#fnref22">↩</a></p></li>
  604. <li id="fn23"><p>Fecker Benedikt, et al., <a href="">Open Access oder die Zurückeroberung der Autonomie</a>, Alexander von Humbolt – Institut fuer Internet und Gesellschaft, HIIG Blog, November 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref23">↩</a></p></li>
  605. <li id="fn24"><p>Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), OECD Science, <a href="">Making Open Science a Reality</a> No. 25, OECD Publishing, Paris 2015 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref24">↩</a></p></li>
  606. <li id="fn25"><p>European Commission, <a href="">The 3 Os: Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World</a>, Brussels 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref25">↩</a></p></li>
  607. <li id="fn26"><p>OECD (2016), OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing Paris.<a href="#fnref26">↩</a></p></li>
  608. <li id="fn27"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Background note on open access to publications and data in Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref27">↩</a></p></li>
  609. <li id="fn28"><p>Van Noorden, R., <a href="">US science to be open to all</a>, in: Nature 494, February 2013, pp. 414–415. [accessed 01/12/2016]<a href="#fnref28">↩</a></p></li>
  610. <li id="fn29"><p>Di Cosmo, R., Scientific Publications, <a href="">The Role of Public Administrations in The ICT Era in: Free Software Licenses in Context</a>, UPGRADE Vol. VII, No. 3, June 2006 [accessed 29/11/2016].<a href="#fnref29">↩</a></p></li>
  611. <li id="fn30"><p>OOECD (2016), OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing Paris.<a href="#fnref30">↩</a></p></li>
  612. <li id="fn31"><p>Europan Commission, <a href="">Online survey on scientific information in the digital age</a>, European Union, 2012 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref31">↩</a></p></li>
  613. <li id="fn32"><p>OECD (2016), OECD Science, <a href="">Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016</a>, OECD Publishing Paris.<a href="#fnref32">↩</a></p></li>
  614. <li id="fn33"><p>Here are some examples: <a href="">the DEAL project</a>, <a href="">the Budapest Open Access Initiative</a> and <a href="">the Max-Planck Institute</a>.<a href="#fnref33">↩</a></p></li>
  615. <li id="fn34"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">"Open innovation, open science, open to the world: A vision for Europe"</a>, 2016, p. 34 [accessed 02/12/2016].<a href="#fnref34">↩</a></p></li>
  616. <li id="fn35"><p>Council of the European Union, <a href="">The transition towards an Open Science system - Council conclusions</a> (adopted on 27/05/2016), 8791/16 RECH 133 TELECOM 74, Brussels, May 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref35">↩</a></p></li>
  617. <li id="fn36"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Annex 1 - Background Paper to the Consultation on potential strategy and priorities for research and innovation in the Horizon 2020 "Science with and for Society" Work Programme 2018-2020</a>, Brussels, March 2016 [accessed 24/11/2016].<a href="#fnref36">↩</a></p></li>
  618. <li id="fn37"><p>"Science With and For Society" Advisory Group, <a href="">Strategic Opinion for research and innovation in the Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2018–2020 - Recommendations to the European Commission</a>, Brussels, May 2016, p.19, points a), b) and e) [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref37">↩</a></p></li>
  619. <li id="fn38"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">H2020 Programme - Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020 v. 3.1.</a>, Brussels, August 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref38">↩</a></p></li>
  620. <li id="fn39"><p>Laakso, M., <a href="">"The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009"</a>, PLOS, 2011. [accessed 22/12/2016]<a href="#fnref39">↩</a></p></li>
  621. <li id="fn40"><p>"Science With and For Society" Advisory Group, <a href="">Strategic Opinion for research and innovation in the Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2018–2020 - Recommendations to the European Commission</a>, Brussels, May 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref40">↩</a></p></li>
  622. <li id="fn41"><p>Moedas, C., Commissioner for Research, <a href="">Science and Innovation, Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World in : "A new start for Europe: Opening up to an ERA of Innovation"</a> Conference, Brussels June 2015 [accessed 24/11/2016]<a href="#fnref41">↩</a></p></li>
  623. <li id="fn42"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">H2020 Programme - Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020 v. 3.1.</a>, Brussels, August 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref42">↩</a></p></li>
  624. <li id="fn43"><p><a href="">Free Software licence as approved by the Free Software Foundation and Open Source Initiative</a> [accessed 04/01/2017]<a href="#fnref43">↩</a></p></li>
  625. <li id="fn44"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">Strategic Foresight: Towards the 3rd Strategic Programme of Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref44">↩</a></p></li>
  626. <li id="fn45"><p>European IPR Helpdesk, <a href="">Fact Sheet: Open access to publications and data in Horizon 2020: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)</a>, Brussels May 2014 [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref45">↩</a></p></li>
  627. <li id="fn46"><p><a href="">The four essential freedoms, as stated in</a> [accessed 23/11/2016]<a href="#fnref46">↩</a></p></li>
  628. <li id="fn47"><p>European IPR Helpdesk, <a href="">Will it be possible to release our Horizon 2020 project results (software) under an open source licence?</a> [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref47">↩</a></p></li>
  629. <li id="fn48"><p>Suber, P., <a href="">Open Access, The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series 2012</a>. [accessed 22/12/2016]<a href="#fnref48">↩</a></p></li>
  630. <li id="fn49"><p>European IPR Helpdesk, <a href="">Will it be possible to release our Horizon 2020 project results (software) under an open source licence?</a> [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref49">↩</a></p></li>
  631. <li id="fn50"><p>Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS), <a href=";view=article&amp;id=146&amp;Itemid=308">Benefits of Open Access for research dissemination</a> [accessed 01/12/2016]<a href="#fnref50">↩</a></p></li>
  632. <li id="fn51"><p>EU2016, <a href="">All European scientific articles to be freely accessible by 2020 Europe makes a definitive choice for open access by 2020</a>, Press release, May 2016 [accessed 25/11/2016].<a href="#fnref51">↩</a></p></li>
  633. <li id="fn52"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">H2020 Programme - Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels, July 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref52">↩</a></p></li>
  634. <li id="fn53"><p>Council of the European Union, <a href="">The transition towards an Open Science system - Council conclusions</a> (adopted on 27/05/2016), 8791/16 RECH 133 TELECOM 74, Brussels, May 2016. [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref53">↩</a></p></li>
  635. <li id="fn54"><p>Europan Commission, <a href="">Boosting the benefits of public investments in research</a>, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Brussels, July 2012 [accessed 01/12/2016].<a href="#fnref54">↩</a></p></li>
  636. <li id="fn55"><p>EU2016, <a href="">All European scientific articles to be freely accessible by 2020 Europe makes a definitive choice for open access by 2020</a>, Press release, May 2016 [accessed 25/11/2016].<a href="#fnref55">↩</a></p></li>
  637. <li id="fn56"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Improving knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry across Europe</a>, Brussels 2007 [accessed 23/11/2016]<a href="#fnref56">↩</a></p></li>
  638. <li id="fn57"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">H2020 Programme - Guidelines on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Horizon 2020 v. 3.1.</a>, Brussels, August 2016 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref57">↩</a></p></li>
  639. <li id="fn58"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Digital science in Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels March 2013 [accessed 23/11/2016]<a href="#fnref58">↩</a></p></li>
  640. <li id="fn59"><p>Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), <a href="">OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding</a>, Paris 2007 [accessed 22/11/2016]<a href="#fnref59">↩</a></p></li>
  641. <li id="fn60"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Digital science in Horizon 2020</a>, Brussels March 2013 [accessed 23/11/2016]<a href="#fnref60">↩</a></p></li>
  642. <li id="fn61"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, High Level Expert Group, <a href="">First report and recommendations on the European Open Science Cloud "Realising the European Open Science Cloud"</a>, European Union 2016 [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref61">↩</a></p></li>
  643. <li id="fn62"><p>Rettberg, N., <a href="">European Public Sector Information Platform Topic Report No. 2014/ 10 Open Research in Europe- OpenAIRE</a>, October 2014 [accessed 23/11/2016]<a href="#fnref62">↩</a></p></li>
  644. <li id="fn63"><p>See: <a href=""></a> [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref63">↩</a></p></li>
  645. <li id="fn64"><p>European Commission, <a href="">Public consultation on the Science with and for Society Work Programme 2016-2017 General Findings</a>, Brussels February 2015 [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref64">↩</a></p></li>
  646. <li id="fn65"><p>European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, <a href="">High Level Expert Group, First report and recommendations on the European Open Science Cloud "Realising the European Open Science Cloud"</a>, European Union 2016 [accessed 22/11/2016].<a href="#fnref65">↩</a></p></li>
  647. <li id="fn66"><p>See more: <a href=""> .</a> See also: <a href="">Open Science Prize</a>. The Open Science Prize is a new initiative in the field of health from the Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health and Howard Hughes Medical Institute to encourage the prototyping and development of services that enable open content – including publications, datasets, code and other research outputs – to be discovered, accessed and re-used in ways that will advance research.<a href="#fnref66">↩</a></p></li>
  648. <li id="fn67"><p>Owen, R. et al., Responsible research and innovation,<a href=" From science in society to science for society, with society in: Science and Public Policy"></a> Vol. 39, pp. 751–76, 2012. <a href="#fnref67">↩</a></p></li>
  649. <li id="fn68"><p>Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), <a href="">Making Open Science a Reality, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers</a>, No. 25, OECD Publishing, Paris 2015 [accessed 23/11/2016].<a href="#fnref68">↩</a></p></li>
  650. </ol>
  651. </div>
  652. </body>
  653. <sidebar promo="our-work">
  654. <h2>Table of Contents</h2>
  655. <ul>
  656. <li><a href="#overview">Overview</a></li>
  657. <li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
  658. <li><a href="#recommendations">Recommendations</a></li>
  659. <li><a href="#data-preservation-and-open-science-through-open-standards">Data preservation and Open Science through Open Standards</a></li>
  660. <li><a href="#free-software-as-the-default-option-for-horizon-2020">Free Software as the default option for Horizon 2020</a></li>
  661. <li><a href="#endorsing-free-software-as-part-of-open-science">Endorsing Free Software as part of Open Science</a></li>
  662. <li><a href="#repositories-for-scientific-publications-data-and-software">Repositories for Scientific Publications, Data and Software</a></li>
  663. <li><a href="#open-science-prizes">"Open Science" Prizes</a></li>
  664. </ul>
  665. <h2>Related links</h2>
  666. <ul>
  667. <li>
  668. <a href="">
  669. Position Paper for the endorsement of Free Software and Open Standards in
  670. Horizon 2020 and all publicly-funded research </a>
  671. Download as pdf
  672. </li>
  673. <li>
  674. <a href="">
  675. Promoting innovation and growth through Horizon 2020 </a>
  676. by Eszter Bakó and Karsten Gerloff
  677. </li>
  678. </ul>
  679. </sidebar>
  680. <tags>
  681. <tag content="Open Science">OpenScience</tag>
  682. <tag Content="Policy">Policy</tag>
  683. <tag content="European Commission">EuropeanCommission</tag>
  684. <tag content="Horizon 2020">Horizon2020</tag>
  685. <tag content="Open Standards">OpenStandards</tag>
  686. </tags>
  687. <author id="gkotsopoulou" />
  688. <author id="albers" />
  689. <author id="malaja" />
  690. <author>
  691. <name>Fernando Sanjurjo</name>
  692. </author>
  693. <author>
  694. <name>Roberto Di Cosmo</name>
  695. </author>
  696. <date>
  697. <original content="2017-01-05"/>
  698. </date>
  699. <download type="pdf" content="" />
  700. </html>