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@ -158,8 +158,8 @@ consulenza sulle licenze. A tale scopo, nel 2017 abbiamo anche creato
l'iniziativa di grande successo <a href="https://reuse.software/">REUSE</a>
per fornire un insieme di raccomandazioni per rendere più semplice per
gli sviluppatori l'applicazione delle licenze ai progetti di Software
Libero. REUSE è stata adottata in progetti rinomati come l'App tedesca
Corana Warn e KDE.</p>
Libero. REUSE è stata adottata in progetti rinomati come l'app tedesca
Corona Warn e KDE.</p>
<p>Fin dalla sua costituzione, la FSFE è stata impegnata a condurre
campagne pubbliche per aiutare le persone a comprendere i benefici del

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@ -22,21 +22,21 @@
<p>
Anche se Android è principalmente Software Libero, i dispositivi che lo usano contengono spesso anche Software proprietario e usano servizi
che impediscono alle persone di utilizzarli in modo indipendente e autonomo.
Libera il tuo dispositivo Android: impara come riprendere il controllo dei tuoi dati, con un sistema operativo libero e App libere!
Libera il tuo dispositivo Android: impara come riprendere il controllo dei tuoi dati, con un sistema operativo libero e app libere!
</p>
</div>
<div id="subpages">
<div class="half">
<h3><a href="#Apps">App Libere</a></h3>
<h3><a href="#Apps">App libere</a></h3>
<p>
Per le per persone meno esperte il modo migliore per iniziare è cominciare
ad usare App Libere. Ti possiamo insegnare ad usare degli App Store Liberi
e consigliarti delle App Libere che possono coprire i
ad usare app libere. Ti possiamo insegnare ad usare degli app store liberi
e consigliarti delle app libere che possono coprire i
più comuni casi d'uso, ad esempio la messaggistica, la navigazione,
oppure i videogiochi.
</p>
<div class="action"><a href="#Apps">Libera le tue App</a></div>
<div class="action"><a href="#Apps">Libera le tue app</a></div>
</div>
<div class="half last">
<h3><a href="#OS">Sistemi operativi Liberi</a></h3>
@ -52,15 +52,15 @@
<h2 id="App">Le App</h2>
<h2 id="App">Le app</h2>
<p>
Per la maggior parte delle persone, <a href="https://play.google.com/">Google
Play Store</a> è la sola o la principale fonte per le
applicazioni. Non indica nemmeno se un'App è Software Libero
oppure no, figuriamoci la sua licenza. Purtroppo, la maggior parte delle App distribuite da
questo e da altri market sono proprietarie. Anche se installi un'App Libera,
non ci sono ragioni per fidarsi dell'App binaria scaricata. Usare Google
applicazioni. Non indica nemmeno se un'app è Software Libero
oppure no, figuriamoci la sua licenza. Purtroppo, la maggior parte delle app distribuite da
questo e da altri market sono proprietarie. Anche se installi un'app Libera,
non ci sono ragioni per fidarsi dell'app binaria scaricata. Usare Google
Market richiede obbligatoriamente un account Google. Sconsigliamo caldamente
di usare questo market.
</p>
@ -73,11 +73,11 @@
<p>
L'<a href="http://f-droid.org/">iniziativa F-Droid</a> fu avviata per
cambiare la triste situazione delle App Libere nel mondo Android,
sviluppando un repository di App Libere facilmente installabili su dispositivi Android.
C'è un'App client per Android che permette di
cambiare la triste situazione delle app libere nel mondo Android,
sviluppando un repository di app libere facilmente installabili su dispositivi Android.
C'è un'app client per Android che permette di
navigare facilmente nelle applicazioni Libere, installarle sul tuo dispositivo e
cercarne gli aggiornamenti. Le App presenti su F-Droid non hanno costi nascosti,
cercarne gli aggiornamenti. Le app presenti su F-Droid non hanno costi nascosti,
sono adatte ai minori e sono trasparenti sulle eventuali
<a href="https://f-droid.org/wiki/page/AntiFeatures">antifeature</a> presenti.
</p>
@ -97,12 +97,12 @@
Abbiamo raccolto alcune informazioni sui vari modi in cui potresti <a href="/activities/android/help.html#Apps">aiutare F-Droid</a>.
</p>
<h3 id="selection">Elenco di App di uso generale</h3>
<h3 id="selection">Elenco di app di uso generale</h3>
<p>
Oggigiorno, per fortuna, viviamo in un mondo in cui possiamo scegliere tra
diversi programmi Liberi per risolvere quasi ogni nostra necessità. Questa sezione
si propone di fornire un breve cernita di App, particolarmente utile per i
si propone di fornire un breve cernita di app, particolarmente utile per i
novizi. Non è possibile che tale elenco sia perfetto per ogni utente, né che copra
tutti i casi d'uso. Dopo aver preso confidenza suggeriamo di consultare il <a
href="https://f-droid.org/packages/">repository F-Droid</a> oppure i
@ -140,14 +140,14 @@
<h4 id="im">Messaggistica istantanea</h4>
<p>
La situazione complessiva delle App Libere di messaggistica istantanea è
La situazione complessiva delle app libere di messaggistica istantanea è
intricata. Mentre ci sono programmi completamente Liberi come <a
href="https://f-droid.org/packages/eu.siacs.conversations/">Conversations</a> oppure Zom
(per il protocollo XMPP/Jabber, gli utenti iOS hanno a disposizione <a href="https://chatsecure.org/">ChatSecure</a>), <a
href="https://f-droid.org/packages/com.b44t.messenger/">Delta Chat</a> (usando
le email) o <a href="https://f-droid.org/packages/im.vector.alpha/">Riot.im</a>
(usando Matrix), probabilmente non riusciresti ad usarle con le persone che
conosci perché ognuna di esse ha pochi utenti. Ci sono altre App principalmente
conosci perché ognuna di esse ha pochi utenti. Ci sono altre app principalmente
o in parte Libere ma che hanno antifeature come dipendenze da server
o librerie non Libere, oppure la mancanza di server federation: esempi sono <a
href="https://signal.org/">Signal</a> e <a
@ -158,7 +158,7 @@
<h4 id="multimedia">Multimedia</h4>
<p>
Ci sono moltissime App libere fatte apposta per intrattenerti con audio
Ci sono moltissime app libere fatte apposta per intrattenerti con audio
e filmati sul tuo cellulare. Sono interessanti <a
href="https://f-droid.org/packages/org.schabi.newpipe/">NewPipe</a>
una semplice interfaccia per YouTube con alcune caratteristiche uniche,
@ -269,7 +269,7 @@
<p>
LineageOS per scelta non contiene Google Play service
per questioni di Libertà. Comunque, se hai davvero bisogno
di alcune App proprietarie puoi sempre installare l'implementazione Libera di questi
di alcune app proprietarie puoi sempre installare l'implementazione Libera di questi
servizi <a href="https://microg.org/">microG</a>.
</p>
@ -281,7 +281,7 @@
</p>
</body>
<description>Scopri come riprendere il controllo del tuo dispositivo Android e dei tuoi dati, con un sistema operativo libero e App libere</description>
<description>Scopri come riprendere il controllo del tuo dispositivo Android e dei tuoi dati, con un sistema operativo libero e app libere</description>
<legal type="cc-license">
<license>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</license>
<notice>Parti di questa pagina sono modifiche basate su un documento creato e

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@ -0,0 +1,87 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<html>
<version>1</version>
<head>
<title>Upcycling Android</title>
</head>
<body class="toplevel upcycling-android">
<div class="color-box background fullwidth top" data-color="android-blue">
<div class="fullwidth-content">
<div class="android-logo"><a href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/">
<img id="head" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-head.png" />
<img id="text" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-text.png" />
</a></div>
<p>
Free Software can save live of your smartphone. Learn why this matters and how it works.
</p>
</div>
</div>
<h2 class="painted">The - not only - environmental costs behind our smartphones</h2>
<p>Smartphones are very valuable devices. Not only for our personal communication and organisation, but also in terms of the natural resources and energy investments necessary to produce them. Rare earths and other limited resources are required to produce many of the technical modules and chips that any smartphone consists of. Even worse: many of such resources are not only extremely rare and their extraction causes great environmental damage through mining, for example. Very often they are also extracted from the ground under inhumane conditions including child labor and different forms of slavery. In so called failed states and in the absence of law and order, a battle for the best mines often leads to local fights and violence.</p>
<p>After extraction, these resources are send to manufacturies in South- and East-Asia where in a very energy-intensive process they are used to produce all the chips and connectors no smartphone can be used without. Assembling these modules often happens under conditions that are in our European understanding inacceptable. The energy invested is for the most part deriving from fossil fuels, disposal of waste produced during the production happens with less attention towards their environmental impact as regulations we know from European policies.</p>
<p>After production, these devices are send around the world to end up in stores and inboxes of customers. The global transportation of these products again have a huge environmental impact. Apple for example, <a href="">calculates its carbon footprint for 2018</a> to derive in 74% from the production of and another 5% of global transport of their products. Learn more about <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-sustainability-and-the-use-of-natural-resources">Hardware production and usage times</a> in our article. </p>
<p>After their usage lifetime, the disposal of smartphone devices is
equally troubling. In particular the amount of e-waste increases every year. The
<a href="http://ewastemonitor.info/">global e-waste monitor calculates</a> that
in 2019 alone over 50 million tons of electronic waste have
globally been disposed. Since 2014, the amount of annual
electronic waste has increased by more than a fifth. In turn, only
17% of this was recycled. Most of the scrap
- including large parts of the recycling - ends up in the countries
of the global south. Again, global transportation of e-waste comes with additional environmental costs, and once arrived, it is thinned through under inhumane conditions and searched for the last usable raw materials.</p>
<p>On the FYA pages in the sustainability-section we <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#uninstallability-and-modularity">link to</a> the article on uninstallability of apps.</p>
<h2 class="painted">Problem: Short life time of devices</h2>
<p>We can help the aforementioned problems by reducing the amount of Smarphones being produced. In the last five years there have been sold (thus also produced) <a href="https://www.statista.com/statistics/755388/global-smartphone-unit-sales-by-region/">more than 1.5 billion smartphones</a> every year. Every time we keep using our current smartphone instead of buying a new one we help avoiding the production of new phones and disposal of ewaste. Assuming if only one third of smartphone users would use their devices one year longer as now, this would reduce the production of new smartphones already by hundreds of millions of smartphones yearly and thus reduce the involved energy consumption significantly.</p>
<p>But keep using our phones in use is sometimes not just a question of will. Often manufacturers prefer if we buy them new phones instead of keep using our current ones. Non-repairability of devices, missing spare parts and other hardware-related obstacles come into mind, that often hinder users from keep using their devices once even only a minor part of the whole device is broken. However, software play an equally important part regarding the life-time of smart devices.</p>
<p></p>
<h3>software obsolescence</h3>
<p>one of the most common cases is the third case from the list above: the end of the provision of software or the end of support for software. As a rule, such a linear business model is the basis of the market logic of proprietary software: the sale of new products should be promoted by devaluing current products11. The software of a certain version (in the above example, the operating system X) is no longer supported, so that customers are forced to buy the next higher version. </p>
<p>the forced version upgrade can lead to the devaluation of hardware that is actually still functioning. This is the case when the next version can no longer be run on the old hardware. Ultimately, users are faced with a dilemma: Either they continue to use their current and functioning hardware, but have to live with a security risk by continuing to use the old software without any further security updates. Or they are forced to buy new hardware just to use the new software upgrade. This dilemma is known as "software obsolescence" </p>
<p>copy text from the sustainability article and pictues from the talk in here</p>
Most of the smartphones affected by software obsolescence are devices with the Android operating system from Google. In fairness, this is simply due to the fact that an estimated 75% of smartphones worldwide have Android installed. On the other hand, it is also attributed to the fact that the actual hardware is mostly produced by third-party manufacturers and the operating system itself is in turn developed by Google. As a result of the initial sale, however, the hardware manufacturers have no further incentives to ensure that the phone can be used for as long as possible. On the contrary, you can always rely on new Android versions by a third party Google to keep producing and marketing new phones - instead of providing support for previous Android versions.
<p>Free Software solves the dilemma of software obsolescence in that there cannot be a forced end of support. Instead, Free Software can be used by all people for unlimited time and space and no single entity has full control over the software. Read more about <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html">software sustainability</a> in our article. On your Android phone you can replace the operating system with a Free Software operating system. These are called "Custom ROM".</p>
<h2 class="">Free Software as a sustainable solution out of the dilemma</h2>
<p>On Android phones the aforementioned “custom ROMs” can be installed on the said smartphones. These custom ROMs are modifications and Free Software operating systems of the original Android operating system, which enable users to install "new operating systems" on "old hardware". This means, that in many cases at least the current operating version can be supplied with security updates, and sometimes porting to higher operating system versions may also be possible. The users are thus no longer at the mercy of the dilemma of software obsolescence described above and the lifetime of the respective hardware can thus be significantly increased18.</p>
<p>By extending the usage time of hardware and countering software obsolescence, Free Software can directly help save natural resources and, attain sustainable digitization. </p>
<h2>Join the movement and be part of it</h2>
<p>Join our initiative and upcycle your smartphone. Together we can make a difference and help to reduce our resource consumption. Unfortunately, installing alternative Free Software operating systems on Android phones is not always easy. To help you with it we <a href="">collected the most important information</a> with links for further reading as well as we offer workshops for user where they can find help.</p>
<p>Please also help by letting other people know about this initiative. Point them to our <a href="">home page</a>, order some <a href="">stickers</a> or join our mailing list. Check out our <a href="">workshops</a> if you like to participate with your phone or as a volunteer to helpe others. Share our video etc., also embed this video here. </p>
<h2>This project is financially supported by:</h2>
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/e4f61b31daadca46e2942f69fb7da6bf.png" />
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/7970e2f7c9c69d4e21f00ca242a657ca.jpg" />
<p>The publisher is responsible for the content of this publication.</p>
</body>
</html>

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@ -18,21 +18,20 @@
<p>
If only one third of smartphone users would extend the usage lifetime of
their smartphones for one more year, we could save hundreds of millions of
smartphones from being produced. Learn how you can extend your
smartphone's life by using Free Software. <a
href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/howto.html">Learn more</a>
smartphones from being produced. <a
href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/about.html">Learn more</a> about the environmental benefits of using Free Software on your device to counter software obsolescence.
</p>
</div>
</div>
<h2 class="painted">Latest News</h2>
<p>Here will be some news fetched. To begin with: News-item about the software sustainability article + news item about campaign launch + 1 more </p>
<h2 class="painted">Watch our video</h2>
<p>
If only one third of smartphone users would extend the usage lifetime of
their smartphones for one more year, we could save hundreds of millions of
smartphones from being produced thus saving a lot of our planet's limited
resources. We have created a short video that explains this issue in a
nutshell. Please share it with your friends!
Every year, one point five billion smartphones are manufactured worldwide - and probably just as many are thrown away after very short lifetimes. So called "software obsolescence" has devastating consequences for our world and our environment. Our video explains the problem in a nutshell and shows a solution: Free Software helps users to overcome the dilemma and save the climate in one. Enjoy and share it with your friends!
</p>
<figure class="max-width-70">
@ -57,6 +56,8 @@
<h2>Help yourself and others</h2>
<p>If there is none of our workshops happening near you or you can't wait for it, we collected all infomation necessary that helpt you start upcycling your phone by yourself. And once you understand doing it by yourself you can also help others. Read about how to upcycle your phone in a nutshell on our <a href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/upcycle.html">subpage</a>.</p>
<div class="color-box background rounded" data-color="android-lime">
<p>
Some text paragraph here within a box that can be used in different colors
@ -66,9 +67,8 @@
<h2>Get our information material</h2>
<p>
You can order our leaflets and stickers <a
href="/contribute/spreadtheword/">here</a>.
<p>Help us to spread the word about the environmental impact of our smartphones and how to tackle them by Upcycling Android with Free Software. We already have beautiful stickers and we are preparing a handy leaflet for you to hand out or to put in your community space. <a
href="/contribute/spreadtheword/">Order now</a>.
</p>
<h2 class="painted">Beyond Android</h2>
@ -79,19 +79,24 @@
<h3>Software sustainability</h3>
<p>
Software sustainability does not only play a role in extending usage
lifetime of smartphones. Learn how software can be used for a long time!
lifetime of smartphones. In fact, it is key to achieve a more sustainable digital society. The FSFE provides an <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html">in-depth article about the sustainability of Free Software</a>.
</p>
</div>
<div class="box">
<h3>100% freedom</h3>
<p>
If you would like to a have a free phone with your free operating
system, check out this website with all instructions!
The FSFE also runs a <a href="/activities/android/android.html">Free Your Android</a> campaign to help you regain full control of your Android device and your data beyond extending its lifetime. If you would like to a have a free phone with your free operating
system, check out the website and fully liberate your device!
</p>
</div>
</div>
<h2>This project is financially supported by:</h2>
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/e4f61b31daadca46e2942f69fb7da6bf.png" />
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/7970e2f7c9c69d4e21f00ca242a657ca.jpg" />
<p>The publisher is responsible for the content of this publication.</p>
</body>
</html>

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<html>
<version>1</version>
<head>
<title>Upcycling Android</title>
</head>
<body class="toplevel upcycling-android">
<div class="color-box background fullwidth top" data-color="android-blue">
<div class="fullwidth-content">
<div class="android-logo"><a href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/">
<img id="head" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-head.png" />
<img id="text" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-text.png" />
</a></div>
<p>
About how to upcycle your phone
</p>
</div>
</div>
<h2 class="painted">What means "upcycling"?</h2>
<p>The manufacturer of your Android Smartphone does not anymore offer you recent updates of your phone? You are faced with the dilemma of either buying a new phone or keep running and outdated system? Learn on this page how you can install and use a Free Software operating system on your phone that keeps you up to date and puts you back in control of your device.</p>
<h3>What exactly happens?</h3>
<p>In order to extend usage lifetime of your phone and to get back full control of your device so you can self-determine when it is too old for further usage or not you can install a so-called "Custom ROM". Custom ROMs are Android alternatives based on the original operating system. Every time a new Android version is published there are multiple companies and communities who take the release code and re-publish it in a modified version. These versions usually exclude Google dependencies and software, hence are lightweight and slim. This comes with another benefit, that these Custom ROMs are easier to install on phones with less hardware capacities. But the biggestt benefit is that these Custom ROMs often get packaged for phones whose initial manufacturers do not support anymore. So if you manufacturer sold your phone with Android version X and does not offer you its follow up release, the Android version x+1, it is very likely a modified Custom ROM of Android version x+1 can be installed on your phone.</p>
<h3>Unlocking the bootloader</h3>
<p>In order to be able to install a Custom ROM however, you initially need to unlock your bootloader. The bootloader is an underlying software level on top of which you install the operating system. As a security measure, when you buy a new phone the booloader is locked by default. This security measure however also prevents you from taking control of your device by installing an alternative operating system. Even if this alternative is a more up-to-date version of your Android and thus in sum offers more security in your daily use.</p>
<p>Some phones are easy to unlock the bootloader, others are not. It totally depends on your supplier and manufacturer of the phone. Please note that we cannot offer you online or remote help with this process. You are welcome to participate in one of <a href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/workshops.html">our workshops</a>. Apart from that you usually find help when you look for "unlock bootloader" at your manufacturer's homepage. Apart from that there are many forums, platforms, magazines and other websites available who offer guides on how to unlock your bootloader in different qualities.</p>
<h4>Fear around unlocking bootloader </h4>
<p>Be aware that manufacturers often like to scare you away from unlocking your bootloader. Not only that they make you a hard time doing so but they also claim that you void your warranty. <a href="/activities/android/flashingdevices.html">Following the analysis of the FSFE's legal experts</a> this is however not true: <em>"Unless the seller can prove that modifying the software, rooting your device or flashing it with some other OS or firmware was the cause for the defect,"</em> you are covered by the “compulsory warranty” as it is described in the European Directive 1999/44/CE. Also be aware however, that during the process of unlocking your bootloader you can brick your phone. This should however not happen if you are careful and follow the recommendations.</p>
<h3>Advantages of unlocking the bootloader</h3>
<ul>
<li>You can flash custom ROM and custom recovery on your device</li>
<li>You can root your smartphone.</li>
</ul>
<h2>Using and choosing your phone model</h2>
<p>Some phones are easier to upcycle then others. This is because some manufacturers make it hard for you to upcycle your phone so that you buy a new one instead of renewing the old one. Some even want to prevent you from unlocking your bootloader by using heavy <a href="httops://drm.info">digital restriction management</a> and downgrade your hardware if you do. If you already have a phone, find help and consequences on unlocking your bootloader on the manufacturer's pages or in specific communities in the Internet.</p>
<p>If you are currently in need to buy a new phone it is recommendable to choose your phone based on its easiness to unlock its booloader. Not only do you make yourself a more easy time but also do you support more open phones with your choice. As a general note meanwhile there are several phones that come with a Custom ROM pre-installed. This is of course the easiest option since they took away all the burden already and offer you an easy-to-use experience. Apart from that the Google phones are easy to unlock. Although it sounds contradictory first, that the Google phones are the ones where it is easiest to install an alternative openrating system without any Google dependencies and software. This is because Google's business is not selling phones but developing the software. They like developers to play around with the hardware and their business model does not depend on them buying a new phone every year or two. Find more information on different models and on choosing your phone in <a href="https://wiki.fsfe.org">our dedicated wiki page</a></p>
<h2>Flashing a Custom ROM</h2>
<p>"Flashing" is the process of installing a new operating system on your phone. This can be a successor of current operating system or an alternative version, a custom ROM. You can only install a custom ROM if you have successfully unlocked your bootloader (see above). </p>
<h3>Choosing a custom ROM</h3>
<p>If you want to install an alternative operating system on your phone, there are many many ROMs to choose from. Some of them are closer to the original Android, others are more separated. Some include more Free Software components or pre-installations than others. Some have the focus on security, others on usability, others on modularity. The amount of custom ROMs to choose from can be compelling in the beginning. But in the end the choice gets limited by the phone model you have and the type of system you like to have, so it boils down to a overseeable number. We collected some of the more prominent ones on our <a href="/activities/android/android.html">free your android pages</a>.</p>
<h3>Discovering the world of free software</h3>
<p>Free Software is the base of what is what runs most part of our digital infrastructure and our devices. The Internet heavily relies on the innovations and accessbility of Free Software. And ever more growing since the last years it is also available on your smartphone.</p>
<p>Free Software is <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html">sustainable software</a>. Not only will the software be available for everyone everytime, it is also helpful from an ecological point of view. Free Software is also <a href="/activities/android/android.html">good for your privacy</a>. It helps you to keep control over your data. And, as you can see on this page, it also helps you to reduce ewaste and to upcycle your phone.</p>
<p>After upcycling your phone and installing a Free Software operating system on it you have the choice to manually post-install the Google software and libraries and be exposed to their data collection again. Or to keep control over your software and data and use your phone with as many Free Software apps as possible. This can be your entrance into a world full of Free Software. </p>
<p>Discoverin the Free Software world on your mobile phone usually works with a Free Software app store called F-Droid and a replacement for the Google libraries called MicroG. If you both installed you can additionall install the Aurora store to get all the apps you might be missing from the Google Play store. We do however recommend to look for Free Software alternatives in F-Droid. Any app you can replace with a Free Software one is your step towards a more eco-friendly and user-friendly digital environment.</p>
<h4>F-Droid</h4>
<p>The F-Droid initiative was started to change the sad Free Software app situation in the Android world. It builds a repository of easily-installable Free Software apps for the Android platform. In practice this means that you can use F-Droid just as you might be used to use the Google Play store. There is an Android client application that makes it easy to browse Free Software applications, install them onto your device, and keep track of updates. <a href="/activities/android/liberate.html#F-Droid">Read more about F-Droid and recommended apps</a> on our Free Your Android Pages.</p>
<h4>MicroG</h4>
<p>MicroG is a "Free Software re-implementation of Googles proprietary Android user space apps and libraries". In practice that means it allows other Free Software apps to seamlessly integrate into the Android system without having to use Google software for this. Although most microG components are far from complete, users are amazed by the results. Free software users got extended application support, privacy-caring users can reduce or monitor data that is sent to Google and especially older phones can expect some battery life improvements. <a href="/activities/android/liberate.html#F-Droid">Read more about MicroG</a> on our Free Your Android Pages.</p>
<h3>Be brave! Be a good user!</h3>
<p>This page could only glimpse on the possibilities and the benefits of using Free Software on your device. It brings back control to you over your data, your software and over the lifetime of your device. If you like to install Free Software on your device now on your own you will find a lot of information on the Internet. If you like to visit one of our workshops <a href="workshop">check out our page</a>. If you like to spread the word tell others about our initiative and goals. </p>
<h2>This project is financially supported by:</h2>
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/e4f61b31daadca46e2942f69fb7da6bf.png" />
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/7970e2f7c9c69d4e21f00ca242a657ca.jpg" />
<p>The publisher is responsible for the content of this publication.</p>
</body>
</html>

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@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<html>
<version>1</version>
<head>
<title>Upcycling Android</title>
</head>
<body class="toplevel upcycling-android">
<div class="color-box background fullwidth top" data-color="android-blue">
<div class="fullwidth-content">
<div class="android-logo"><a href="/activities/upcyclingandroid/">
<img id="head" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-head.png" />
<img id="text" src="/graphics/upcycling-android-text.png" />
</a></div>
<p>
Our workshops
</p>
</div>
</div>
<h2 class="painted" id="upcoming-workshops">Upcoming Workshops</h2>
<p>Some magic code here to show the upcoming workshops</p>
<h2 class="painted" id="past-workshops">Past Workshops</h2>
<p>Some magic code here to show the past workshops</p>
<h2 class="painted" id="about-the-workshops">About the Workshops</h2>
<p>In collaboration with local partners and groups the FSFE runs "Upcycling Android" workshops to help you with the technical part of upgrading your default Android phone with a Custom ROM. You can read about how this works and why it helps on our <a href="upcycling">upcycle page</a></p>
<p>Since we are working together with local gorups, any workshop is unique and different. They happen in different places and locations but they also put different focus each. Some focus on installing Android alternatives other might concentrate on installing full Linux replacements. But even within these categories they might differ in the actual operating system they concentrate on installing and offer help with. Please read the desctiptions carefully to be sure you choose the workshop that matches your interests. You find however some general remarks for all workshops below.</p>
<h2 class="painted" id="about-the-workshops">General remarks on the workshops</h2>
<p>If you visit on of our workshops please ensure that:</p>
<ul>
<li>You bring your device, power plug, data cable and if possible also a laptop where you have the admin possibilities to install software necessary to use for flashing our phone.</li>
<li>You make a backup before. All data on your phone will be erased during the process. You can find some information about backup <a href="useful link">here</a>.</li>
<li>Technology and hacking can be fiddly sometimes. The teams running the workshops do this voluntarily. Please bring some patience and be excellent to each other.</li>
<li>Our workshops adhere to our <a href="coc">Code of Conduct</a>.</li>
</ul>
<h2>This project is financially supported by:</h2>
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/e4f61b31daadca46e2942f69fb7da6bf.png" />
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/7970e2f7c9c69d4e21f00ca242a657ca.jpg" />
<p>The publisher is responsible for the content of this publication.</p>
</body>
</html>

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@ -27,8 +27,8 @@
<p>
If you are interested to participate, please make sure to <a
href="/activities/yh4f/">register until Sunday, 31 October
2021</a>. Our online Opening Day takes place on Saturday, 9
October 2021.
2021</a>. Our online Opening Day takes place on Sunday, 10
October 17:00 CET.
</p>
<p><strong>Step 2.</strong> Coding phase</p>
<p>
@ -87,26 +87,23 @@
Yes, we are welcoming everyone in Youth Hacking 4 Freedom.
Technology has to be inclusive so that it addresses all peoples
needs. The competition is open to people from 40 countries, and
welcomes people of all cultural backgrounds, all genders, and
people with different abilities and disabilities. If you have
special needs regarding our communication or the trip, we will
make sure to overcome them, just let us know within the first two
months after the opening day. Your interest in technology is all
that is needed for you to fit it perfectly.
welcomes people of all cultural backgrounds and all genders. Your
interest in technology is all that is needed for you to fit it
perfectly.
</p>
<h3 id="should-i-come-to-the-opening-day-">Should I come to the Opening Day?</h3>
<h3 id="should-i-come-to-the-opening-day-">Should I come to the Opening Event?</h3>
<p>
During the Opening Day of Youth Hacking 4 Freedom we will go
During the Opening Event of Youth Hacking 4 Freedom we will go
through basic information that you need to know about the
competition: What is Free Software? What will happen the next
months in the competition? If there is something about this
competition that is unclear to you, you can ask us. We will
answer all your questions during the Opening Day. Also, it is a
answer all your questions during the Opening Event. Also, it is a
nice opportunity to welcome everyone on board. If you are not
sure if you want to compete, you can still register to join the
Opening Day to learn more and make up your mind. It is not
possible to join the Opening Day without registering the
Opening Event to learn more and make up your mind. It is not
possible to join the Opening Event without registering the
competition, but there is no problem if you register and then let
us know whether you would like to proceed.
</p>
@ -118,13 +115,19 @@
From the 1st of November, it is time to start developing your
program. During the coding period you will be invited to an
online group meeting. There you will have the chance to present
what you have done so far, what you want to do next, and what you
find difficult. Likewise, you will briefly follow what the other
participants are working on. This is a good time for everyone who
participates in the competition to share ideas and advice that
might help others.
what you have done so far and briefly follow what the other
participants are working on. This is a good time for everyone to
share ideas and advice that might help others.
</p>
<h3 id="can-i-collaborate-with-others-">Can I collaborate with others?</h3>
<p>
Collaboration is an intrinsic value of Free Software. You can
exchange ideas and collaborate with others, and at the same time
you should have a clear understanding of the program you
submit.
</p>
<h3 id="what-type-of-software-should-i-make-">What type of software should I make?</h3>
<p>
Think of a simple program that you wish it existed but you have
@ -137,6 +140,14 @@
future.
</p>
<h3 id="can-i-make-contributions-to-other-software-projects-">Can I make contributions to other software projects?</h3>
<p>
Yes. You can modify and combine existing programs, contribute to
an existing project, or close an issue in the git. If you decide
to do so, you should clearly indicate what exactly your
contribution was, and what was done by others.
</p>
<h3 id="can-my-program-make-use-of-hardware-">Can my program make use of hardware?</h3>
<p>
Yes, it is fine if your program involves hardware, but it is
@ -155,12 +166,20 @@
<p>
You are free to use a solution that is the most convenient to
you. We would not like to limit your options and require a
certain hosting, as we are in favour of decentralisation. But if
you are unsure, we can recommend using <a
href="https://edugit.org/Teckids/verein">Teckids git
repository</a>. Techkids is set up for your age group, abiding
by legal obligations that often other repository providers do not
consider.
certain hosting, as we are in favour of decentralisation. We
strongly encourage you to choose a platform which does not
exclude anyone based on their age or other factors in their
terms of use, privacy policy, or related documents. If you are
unsure, we can recommend using <a
href="https://edugit.org">EduGit repository</a>. EduGit is a free
Git hosting service designed for use in education, in particular
involving children and adolescents in free software development
and in lessons. It is set up for your age group, abiding by legal
obligations that often other repository providers do not
consider. To use it, you will be asked to create a Teckids
account. Teckids is a youth organisation based in Germany which
focuses on participation of adolescents in free open-source
software.
</p>
<h3 id="how-much-time-should-i-invest-">How much time should I invest?</h3>
@ -181,26 +200,18 @@
If you run into problems in project, we would encourage you to
seek for help from a person you trust, or from an online tech
community. There are plenty of coding meetups where you can get
specific advice online, and learn by following the work of
specific advice online and offline, and learn by following the work of
others. We cannot provide solutions or hints, but you are welcome
to get advice from people who can help you.
</p>
<h3 id="can-i-collaborate-with-others-">Can I collaborate with others?</h3>
<p>
Collaboration is an intrinsic value of Free Software. You can
exchange ideas and collaborate with others, and at the same time
you should have a clear understanding of the program you
submit.
</p>
<h2 id="3-evaluation">3. Evaluation</h2>
<h3 id="how-will-i-present-my-idea-">How will I present my idea?</h3>
<p>
You will send the program to us and the <a
You will upload your program and the <a
href="/activities/yh4f/evaluation.html">jury members</a> will
evaluate your project. Then, you will be invited to present the
evaluate it. Then, you will be invited to present the
software yourself to the jury members, and share a few words
about yourself. How did you come up with your idea? It would be
good if you explain the program step by step and show to a jury
@ -241,12 +252,11 @@
Ceremony takes place. The event will have top speakers in the
field of Free Software and it will be a time of celebration. You
made it! Your hard work paid off and you will receive your award.
If you are not camera-shy, we will take pictures too. We will go
to lunch together winners, FSFE staff members, guest speakers
and get to know each other. We will have an educative tour in
Brussels, visit the EU Parliament, and enjoy the best spots of
this beautiful city. And most importantly: spent time with other
like minded Free Software hackers.
You will get to know other winners, FSFE staff members, and guest
speakers. We will have an educative tour in Brussels, visit the
EU Parliament, and enjoy the best spots of this beautiful city.
Meanwhile, you will be spending time with other like-minded Free
Software hackers.
</p>
<p><strong>

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@ -45,16 +45,25 @@
leave this competition with added knowledge and a smile.
</p>
<h3>Decide yourself what you code</h3>
<p>
There is no set challenge or topic on the software you should
develop. Embrace your imagination and create what is the most
interesting to you. It can address an everyday problem you have, or
it can be just fun. The possibilities are endless! The only
condition for the competition is that the program should be <a
href="/freesoftware/freesoftware.html">Free Software</a>, so that
others can use, study, share, and improve the code in the future.
<h3>Start by joining our Opening Event</h3>
<p>
On <strong>Sunday, 10 October 17:00 CET</strong> join our online
event, so that you can learn more about the competition. Make sure
you have registered in the competition already in order to come to
the YH4F Opening Event. You will get to see the people behind
organising the competition, to better understand the concept of
Free Software, and to ask any questions you might have. Talk to us,
or use the chat, whatever feels more comfortable to you.
</p>
<p>
We are here to help you out, and we will be glad to meet you from
the Opening Event, before the competition officially starts. If you
are undecided about taking part in the competition you are also <a
href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html#should-i-come-to-the-opening-day-">welcome to join the YH4F Opening event</a>
to figure out if you are up
for this challenge.
</p>
<h2 id="register">Register your project!</h2>
@ -125,15 +134,33 @@
</div>
</form>
<h3>Decide yourself what you code</h3>
<p>
There is no set challenge or topic on the software you should
develop. Embrace your imagination and create what is the most
interesting to you. It can address an everyday problem you have, or
it can be just fun. It can be a standalone program that you write
from scratch, or you can modify and combine existing programs. <a
href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html#what-type-of-software-should-i-make-">The
possibilities are endless</a>. The only condition for the competition
is that the program should be <a
href="/freesoftware/freesoftware.html">Free Software</a>, so that
others can use, study, share, and improve the code in the future.
</p>
<h3>Take the time you need</h3>
<p>
From Monday 1 November 2021 to Thursday 31 March 2022, you will
have five months to come up with an idea for a Free Software
program and write it. During the coding period you will be invited
to an online group meeting, where you and other participants can
briefly follow each others work, exchange ideas, and share
problem-solving tips.
program and write it. During the <a
href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html#2-coding-phase">coding
period</a> you will be invited to an online group meeting, where
you and other participants can briefly follow each others work,
exchange ideas, and share problem-solving tips.
</p>
<h3>Present your program to top experts</h3>
@ -150,12 +177,18 @@
people on the field.
</p>
<div class="color-box background" data-color="android-blue">
<p>Do you have more questions before registering?</p>
<a href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html" class="btn btn-default">Go to our FAQ</a>
</div>
<h3>Awesome awards and experiences await</h3>
<p>
Based on the jurys grades, the winners are determined and
announced. The first six places will be awarded with <em>cash
between 1.024€ and 4.096€ each </em>. The Award Ceremony of YH4F
between 1.024€ and 4.096€ each </em>. The <a
href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html#4-award-ceremony">Award Ceremony</a> of YH4F
will take place in Brussels in June 2021. All the winners will be
invited there with covered costs. The Award Ceremony will have top
speakers in the field of Free Software and it will be a time of
@ -164,40 +197,28 @@
fellow winners.
</p>
<div class="color-box background" data-color="android-blue">
<p>Do you have more questions before registering?</p>
<a href="/activities/yh4f/faq.html" class="btn btn-default">Go to our FAQ</a>
</div>
<!-- TODO: check video encoding -->
<figure class="max-width-70">
<video width="100%" crossorigin="crossorigin" poster="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/medium/29eaec34221df63799e229394bb3056d.png" controls="controls">
<!-- <source type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2&quot;" src="https://download.fsfe.org/videos/yh4f/yh4f-reinhard-wiesemann-motivation.mp4"></source> -->
<source type="video/webm; codecs=&quot;vp9, opus&quot;" src="https://download.fsfe.org/videos/yh4f/yh4f-reinhard-wiesemann-motivation.webm"></source>
</video>
<blockquote>
Twenty years ago, Reinhard Wiesemann, won a hacking competition for young
people. He used the money from his cash prize to advance his professional
development. Now Youth Hacking For Freedom is financially supported with
donations by Reinhard Wiesemann and the Linuxhotel.
</blockquote>
<h3>Start here: Join our Opening Day</h3>
<p>
On <strong>Sunday, 10 October 17:00 CET</strong> join our online event, so that
you can learn more about the competition. Make sure you have
registered in the competition already in order to come to the YH4F
Opening Day. You will get to see the people behind organising the
competition, to better understand the concept of Free Software, and
to ask any questions you might have. Talk to us, or use the chat,
whatever feels more comfortable to you. We are here to help you
out, and we will be glad to meet you from the Opening Day, before
the competition officially starts.
</p>
<figcaption>
Twenty years ago, Reinhard Wiesemann, won a hacking competition for
young people. He used the money from his cash prize to advance his
professional development. Now Youth Hacking For Freedom is
financially supported with donations by Reinhard Wiesemann,
Linuxhotel, and Vielrespektzentrum.
</figcaption>
</figure>
<div class="color-box background" data-color="dark-green">
<p>
You also want to support the FSFE's work in supporting young Free Software hackers in Europe?
Do you want to support the FSFE's work in inspiring young Free Software hackers in Europe?
</p>
<fsfe-cd-donate-link class="btn btn-default">Become a supporter now</fsfe-cd-donate-link>
</div>

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@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
<title>OSSEU2020: Denaro pubblico? Codice pubblico! Che ruolo ha il Software Libero dopo la crisi del coronavirus? Online, Irlanda</title>
<body>
<p>In un tempo dove l'umanità ha bisogno di lavorare insieme per trovare una soluzione per la crisi, non possiamo permetterci di reinventare ogni volta la ruota per il software che ci aiuta a contrastare la diffusione del COVID-19. Problemi mondiali necessitano di soluzioni globali! È il Software Libero che permette una cooperazione globale per lo sviluppo del codice. Durante la crisi abbiamo visto molti programmi di Software Libero e progetti che hanno cercato di combattere la crisi, come App di tracciamento, hackathon o soluzioni per telelavoro - ma cosa succederà dopo la crisi?</p>
<p>In un tempo dove l'umanità ha bisogno di lavorare insieme per trovare una soluzione per la crisi, non possiamo permetterci di reinventare ogni volta la ruota per il software che ci aiuta a contrastare la diffusione del COVID-19. Problemi mondiali necessitano di soluzioni globali! È il Software Libero che permette una cooperazione globale per lo sviluppo del codice. Durante la crisi abbiamo visto molti programmi di Software Libero e progetti che hanno cercato di combattere la crisi, come app di tracciamento, hackathon o soluzioni per telelavoro - ma cosa succederà dopo la crisi?</p>
<p>Già prima della crisi centinaia di organizzazioni e decine di migliaia di persone hanno richiesto che il software finanziato dai contribuenti e sviluppato per il settore pubblico debba essere reso disponibile pubblicamente con licenze di Software Libero.</p>
<p>Mercoledì 28.10.2020 alle 17:15 il nostro responsabile delle politiche Alexander Sander parlerà dei vantaggi nell'usare il Software Libero nel settore pubblico, di cosa abbiamo imparato dalla crisi del coronavirus e perché è ora importante più che mai utilizzare il Software Libero.</p>
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@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<eventset>
<version>1</version>
<event start="2021-09-13" end="2021-09-13">
<title>Incontro gruppo locale della comunità della FSFE di Bonn a Bonn, Germania</title>
<body>
<p>Lunedì 13 settembre alle 19:00 (CEST), si terrà l'incontro mensile della Fellowship della FSFE di Bonn. Gli incontri della comunità della FSFE di Bonn ("Meeting Fellowship") si tengono alle 19:00 del secondo lunedì di ogni mese. Il luogo dell'incontro odierno è il caffè Dotty al BTHV (Bonner Tennis- und Hockey-Verein, Tennis e Hockey club di Bonn), Christian-Miesen-Straße 1, 53129 Bonn. L'incontro è aperto a tutti gli interessati al Software Libero. In questo incontro Johannes parlerà di GNURadio.</p>
</body>
<link>https://wiki.fsfe.org/LocalGroups/Bonn</link>
<tags>
<tag key="de">Germany</tag>
<tag key="talk"/>
<tag key="localgroup"/>
<tag key="meeting"/>
<tag key="front-page"/>
</tags>
</event>
</eventset>

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@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<eventset>
<version>1</version>
<event start="2021-09-15" end="2021-09-15">
<title>Incontro della FSFE dei Paesi Bassi (online)</title>
<body>
<p>Il 15 settembre, la FSFE dei Paesi Bassi terrà un altro incontro online con il proprio gruppo locale. L'incontro sarà dalle 20:00 fino alle 21:00 CEST utilizzando il server delle conferenze. È di solito abbastanza 'gezellig' e quindi molti rimangono fino alle 22:30, ma ci si può scollegare quando si vuole. L'incontro è aperto a tutti, e utilizzeremo l'inglese se ci sarà qualcuno che non parla olandese. Puoi trovare ulteriori informazioni nella nostra <a href="https://wiki.fsfe.org/Events/Netherlands/2021-09-15">pagina wiki del gruppo locale</a>. All'incontro ci atterremo al Codice di Condotta della FSFE. Per partecipare all'incontro, invia un'email al coordinatore nazionale Nico Rikken (nico[dot]rikken[at]fsfe[dot]org) che ti invierà il link per l'accesso con il relativo codice.</p>
</body>
<link>https://wiki.fsfe.org/Events/Netherlands/2021-09-15</link>
<tags>
<tag key="localgroup"/>
<tag key="front-page"/>
</tags>
</event>
</eventset>

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@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<eventset>
<version>1</version>
<event start="2021-09-17" end="2021-09-18">
<title>"Denaro pubblico? Codice pubblico!" (online)</title>
<body>
<p>Sabato 18 settembre alle 14:00 (CEST), Bonnie Mehring, responsabile junior dei progetti della FSFE, presenterà "Denaro pubblico, codice pubblico: una campagna strutturata per promuovere la libertà software" alle giornate del Kieler Linux e Open Source. La struttura della campagna "Denaro pubblico? Codice pubblico!" permette alle persone di tutta Europa di promuovere la libertà software nella propria pubblica amministrazione locale. Più di 200 organizzazioni e più di 31'000 persone chiedono che il software finanziato pubblicamente debba essere reso pubblicamente disponibile con una licenza di Software Libero. Insieme abbiamo contattato i politici, i responsabili delle decisioni e gli impiegati statati a tutti i livelli, dall'Unione Europea, ai governi nazionali, ai sindaci delle città e ai capi delle librerie pubbliche. Non solo questo ci ha permesso di arrivare ad importanti discussioni con i responsabili delle decisioni sulla libertà del software, ma anche di aver già implementato specifici cambiamenti politici. Abbiamo attualmente amministrazioni dalla Spagna, dalla Svezia e dalla Germania che già sostengono "Denaro pubblico? Codice pubblico!". Nell'intervento, Bonnie Mehring spiegherà come la struttura della campagna può essere utilizzata per portare avanti l'adozione di politiche favorevoli al Software Libero nella propria area, sia essa la pubblica amministrazione, la propria libreria, la propria università, la propria città, la propria regione o il proprio paese. L'evento è gratuito e tutti sono invitati a partecipare.</p>
</body>
<link>https://kielux.de/programm</link>
<tags>
<tag key="talk"/>
<tag key="front-page"/>
</tags>
</event>
</eventset>

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@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
<h2 id="summary">Summary</h2>
<p><strong>
Here we need a new summary
A definition of software sustainablility is introduced and its characterstics. It is shown how the inherent characteristics of Free Software are sustainable as well as their impact on IT infrastructures. Software obsolescence is explained and the possibilities of using Free Software to save natural resources by extending hardware usage lifetime and through energy cunsumption savings. Finally, four politically necessary directives for a more sustainable digital society are outlined.
</strong>
</p>
@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
<li><a href="#free-software-sustainability-and-the-use-of-natural-resources">(3) Free software, sustainability and the use of natural resources</a></li>
<ul>
<li><a href="#hardware-production-and-usage-times">(3.1) Hardware production and usage times</a></li>
<li><a href="#energy-consumption">(3.2) Energy consumption</a></li>
<li><a href="#energy-consumption">(3.2) Reducing energy consumption</a></li>
<ul>
<li><a href="#autonomy-of-use">(3.2.1) Autonomy of use</a></li>
<li><a href="#uninstallability-and-modularity">(3.2.2) Uninstallability and modularity</a></li>
@ -54,11 +54,10 @@
</ul>
<li><a href="#what-can-politics-and-society-do-for-a-more-sustainable-digitization">(4) What can politics and society do for a more sustainable digitization?</a></li>
<ul>
<li><a href="#public-money-public-code">Public Money? - Public Code!</a></li>
<li><a href="#critical-infrastructures-only-with-free-software">Critical infrastructures only with free software</a></li>
<li><a href="#publication-of-source-code-under-a-free-license-after-the-end-of-support">Publication of source code under a free license after the end of support</a></li>
<li><a href="#right-to-use-alternative-operating-systems-and-software">Right to use alternative operating systems and software</a></li>
<li><a href="#open-interfaces-drivers-and-standards">Open interfaces, drivers, and standards</a></li>
<li><a href="#public-money-public-code">Public infrastructure with public code</a></li>
</ul>
<li><a href="#initiatives-around-the-sustainability-of-free-software">(5) Initiatives around the sustainability of Free Software</a></li>
@ -73,8 +72,7 @@
<p>Free Software (also known as Open Source Software) is any software that grants any user the four freedoms to use, study, share and improve the software<a class="fn" href="#fn1">1</a>. These <em>“four freedoms”</em> are given by a software licence<a class="fn" href="#fn2">2</a>. Software licences define the conditions under which a programme can be used and reused. For it to be Free Software, the licence text must contain at least the full exertions of the aforementioned four freedoms to any user without limitations. Read more about the understanding of <a href="/freesoftware/">What is Free Software</a> and how these four freedoms help support other fundamental rights like freedom of speech, freedom of press and privacy on the <a href="/">Free Software Foundation Europes webpages</a>.</p>
<img src="https://pics.fsfe.org/uploads/big/1a01938d39b3c7b2fb40f26bec981e81.png" />
<p>In contrast to Free Software however, sustainable software is still in need of a precise definition. This short study is intended to help with the understanding of sustainable software and sheds light on how the four freedoms of Free Software support the sustainability of and by software.</p>
@ -204,7 +202,7 @@
Free software, on the other hand, does not have this problem: <strong>once published under a free license, the code is visible to everyone now and in future. And even the abrupt bankruptcy of a developing company behind it cannot lead to a complete loss of knowledge about the actual code.</strong> It is true that there might be a brief vacuum in which a software is not further developed by the original authorship. Still, any third party has the possibility to understand the code as well as to keep using it without further development or develop the software further at will. It should be noted, that it is not always economic or advisable for other reasons to further develop a software instead of (re-)writing it from scratch<a class="fn" href="#fn10">10</a>. Any such decision must be taken individually for each case but not releasing the code after bankruptcy for sure removes that possibility completely.
</p>
<h4>Planned obselescence</h4>
<h4 id="planned-obsolescence">Planned obselescence</h4>
<p>
Finally, <strong>one of the most common cases is the third case from the list above: the end of the provision of software or the end of support for software.</strong> As a rule, such a linear business model is the basis of the market logic of proprietary software: the sale of new products should be promoted by devaluing current products<a class="fn" href="#fn11">11</a>. The software of a certain version (in the above example, the operating system X) is no longer supported, so that customers are forced to buy the next higher version.
@ -215,7 +213,7 @@
</p>
<p>
On the other hand, the forced version upgrade can lead to the devaluation of hardware that is actually still functioning. This is the case when the next version can no longer be run on the old hardware. Ultimately, users are faced with a dilemma: Either they continue to use their current and functioning hardware, but have to live with a security risk by continuing to use the old software without any further security updates. Or they are forced to buy new hardware just to use the new software upgrade. <strong>This dilemma is known as "software obsolescence"</strong> (compare also <a href="#free-software-sustainability-and-the-use-of-natural-resources">chapter 3</a>).
On the other hand, the forced version upgrade can lead to the devaluation of hardware that is actually still functioning. This is the case when the next version can no longer be run on the old hardware. Ultimately, users are faced with a dilemma: Either they continue to use their current and functioning hardware, but have to live with a security risk by continuing to use the old software without any further security updates. Or they are forced to buy new hardware just to use the new software upgrade. <strong>This dilemma is known as "software obsolescence"</strong> (compare also <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#software-obsolescence">chapter 3</a>).
</p>
<p>
@ -512,7 +510,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
ecosystems are not successful without any care, that is why many
projects put particular attention on sustainable funding,
marketing, governance models and other economic aspects.
<a href="https://sustainoss.org">Sustain</a> is an initiative to bring
<a href="#sustainoss">Sustain</a> is an initiative to bring
together experts from various fields to discuss these aspects of
sustainabilty of Free Software. They are however not connected to
the ecological benefits of Free Software, thus not outlined in this
@ -524,7 +522,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
<p>
Everything digital arises in the triangle of software, hardware
and energy. But while software is immaterial, both hardware and
energy require natural resources to produce There are meanwhile
energy require natural resources. There are meanwhile
various starting points for reducing the need for natural
resources in digitization. Within these, the use of Free Software
can pay off in several dimensions, in particular, Free Software
@ -588,7 +586,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
searched for the last usable raw materials.
</p>
<h4>Software obsolescence</h4>
<h4 id="software-obsolescence">Software obsolescence</h4>
<p>
There are often numerous reasons that shorten the usage time of
@ -602,7 +600,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
case, the manufacturer runs consumers into the dilemma of either
buying new hardware or to live with outdated software and potential
security problems (see also <a
href="free-software-and-it-infrastructures">Chapter 2</a>).
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#planned-obsolescence">Chapter 2</a>).
</p>
<p>
@ -668,7 +666,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
resources and, attain sustainable digitization.</strong>
</p>
<h3 id="energy-consumption">(3.2) Energy consumption</h3>
<h3 id="energy-consumption">(3.2) Reducing energy consumption</h3>
<p>
Research into energy consumption of software by comparing
@ -677,7 +675,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
but on the other hand there are already initial approaches and
theses. The German Environment Agency is a pioneer in this area and
is campaigning for the introduction of a <a
href="https://www.blauer-engel.de/en/products/electric-devices/resources-and-energy-efficient-software-products">Blue
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#blue-angel">Blue
Angel for Resources and Energy-Efficient Software Products</a>.
Until further results and investigations shed more light on
specific aspects regarding energy consumption of software, for now
@ -725,7 +723,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
<p>
Open standards also play an important role in the design of
sustainable IT infrastructures (see <a
href="free-software-and-it-infrastructures">Chapter 2</a>). Since
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-is-the-base-for-sustainable-it-infrastructures">Chapter 2.1</a>). Since
different applications can be used to process the same data, open
standards allow an organic development of your own infrastructure
as well as later modifications or corrections. New applications and
@ -766,9 +764,8 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
In a very similar way, the modularity of Free Software can help to
conserve resources and to extend hardware usage time. This is
because lower resource consumption and hardware demands on the
software side not only means that less energy is used, but can also
be the deciding factor in whether or not I can get a program to run
on older and possibly less powerful hardware.
software side not only means that less energy is used, <strong>but can also be the deciding factor in whether or not I can get a program to run
on older and possibly less powerful hardware</strong>.
</p>
<p>
@ -791,7 +788,7 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
<h4 id="reusability">(3.2.3) Reusability</h4>
<p>
In <a href="sustainable-use-of-the-resource-brainpower">(1.5)
In <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#sustainable-use-of-the-resource-brainpower">(1.5)
Sustainable use of the resource brainpower</a> it is argued that
although difficult to measure the reuse possibilities of Free
Software enable a sustainable use of the important human “resource
@ -810,9 +807,9 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
284 tons of CO2. If AI models are not shared across, they will need
to be trained by each stakeholder and implication, thus
dramatically increasing CO2 emissions in this technological field.
Sharing AI models under a Free Software license instead allows for
<strong>Sharing AI models under a Free Software license instead allows for
sustainable development of AI by limiting power consumption and
therefore CO2 emissions<a class="fn" href="#fn24">24</a>.
therefore CO2 emissions</strong><a class="fn" href="#fn24">24</a>.
</p>
<p>
@ -820,13 +817,12 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
computational power by reusing software and trained AI models it
becomes clear how sustainable ecosystems around Free Software (see
<a
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-enables-sustainable-ecosystems">Chapter
2.2</a>,) very likely are able to save countless amount of human
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-enables-sustainable-ecosystems">2.2</a>,) very likely are able to save countless amount of human
energy and computational energy, both decreasing unnecessary use of
natural resources. This is exactly what some competitiors have
understood in developing the Linux Kernel together (see example in
understood in developing,for example, the Linux Kernel together (see example in
<a
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-enables-sustainable-ecosystems">Chapter
href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-enables-sustainable-ecosystems">
2.2</a>). If state authorities would tie the development of
intangible goods that are funded with public money to a publication
under a free license, our society could profit in multiple ways
@ -835,40 +831,179 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
<h2 id="what-can-politics-and-society-do-for-a-more-sustainable-digitization">(4) What can politics and society do for a more sustainable digitization?</h2>
<p>As shown, Free Software contributes to digital sustainability in several dimensions:</p>
<p><strong>The more we research the principles of digital
sustainability, the more it becomes apparent that Free Software is
also sustainable software and vice versa.</strong> Free Software contributes to digital sustainability in several dimensions:</p>
<ul>
<li> [Sustainability of software] (anchor) </li>
<li> [Sustainability of Infrastructures] (anchor) </li>
<li> [Resource saving by extending the usage time of hardware] (anchor) </li>
<i> [Energy saving through autonomy of use and modularity] (anchor)</i>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#examining-the-sustainability-of-free-software">Sustainability and availability of software</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-and-it-infrastructures">Independent infrastuctures and sustainable ecosystems</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-sustainability-and-the-use-of-natural-resources">Saving natural resources by extending the usage time of hardware</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#energy-consumption">Reducing energy consumption through autonomy of use and reusability</a></li>
</ul>
<p>
<strong>The more we research the principles of digital
sustainability, the more it becomes apparent that Free Software is
also sustainable software and vice versa. </strong> It is therefore
<p>It is therefore
important that politics and society set milestones today into
further promotion of Free Software development and thus into
sustainable software in order to guarantee a liveable future. To
achieve this, the most urgent milestones currently are:
</p>
<ul>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#publication-of-source-code-under-a-free-license-after-the-end-of-support">Publication of source code under a free license after the end of support</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#right-to-use-alternative-operating-systems-and-software">Right to use alternative operating systems and software</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#open-interfaces-drivers-and-standards">Open interfaces, drivers, and standards</a></li>
<li><a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#public-money-public-code">Public infrastructure with public code</a></li>
</ul>
<h3 id="public-money-public-code">Public Money? - Public Code!</h3>
<h3 id="publication-of-source-code-under-a-free-license-after-the-end-of-support">Publication of source code under a free license after the end of support</h3>
<p>
In 2017 the Free Software Foundation Europe launched the <a
href="Https://publiccode.eu/">“Public Money? Public Code! ”</a>
campaign which has since enjoyed great popularity around the world.
The aim of the campaign is to create a legal basis that requires
that software developed with public funds for public
administrations is published under a Free Software and open source
license. Administrations and society can doubly benefit: Users
access freedom to use software of their choice and sustainable
services and software get established. <strong>If it's public
money, the code should be public too!</strong>
As shown in this study, Free Software is a solution to overcome the problems of <a href="">software obsolescence</a> and to help extending hardware lifetime:
<p>From smart cities to smart homes to smart phones but also true for even not(-yet)-connected devices like washing machines, toasters or any other machine: the access to the source code of the software that is running the machine is critical for any sort of maintenance operation, reuse or upcycling process of that hardware. Without public access to the source code only the initial manufacturer and contracted service operators can offer any sort of service. Apart from economic problems of creating monopolies, ecological problems worsen latest with the end of support of any such a device by the initial manufacturer. The end of support usually means the end of the lifetime of the device. Although the hardware is still functioning, software obsolescence occures.</p>
<p>To address this dilemma on a political level, <strong>the FSFE demands the publication of a device's
underlying source code under a free license after the end of support (we call the <em>"upcycling of
software"</em>) for any software necessary to run or modify the device. </strong>The availability of the source code would enable third parties the
continuation of the software and thus achieve a milestone against
software obsolescence.
</p>
<p>
For an added sustainable use of our hardware, the publication of source code shall be combined with the owners
right to repair on their machines and the possibility for third
party service providers to get access to that machine.
</p>
<h3 id="right-to-use-alternative-operating-systems-and-software">Right to use alternative operating systems and software</h3>
<p>
Today's manufacturers of linear products mostly try to prevent the
installation of Free Software and alternative operating systems,
although - or precisely because - this can <a hre="">clearly extend the
usage lifetime of hardware</a>, thus guarantee a more sustainable
use of our resources. In terms of digital sustainability, it is a political necessity to prevent such linear business models and enable free reuse of devices. Both,
technical measures (e.g. blocking the bootloader) and legal
measures (e.g. general terms and conditions and EULAs), that aim
to prevent the installation of alternative operating systems must
not be permitted. <strong>Users must be given the right to install the
operating system of their choice on their own devices, as well as
any depending software. </strong>
</p>
<p>
In the past decades however, politics often supported manufacturer's intensions
in locking down devices and creating a linear use of hardware.
The Digital Millenium Copyright Act is such an example as is the
European Information Society Directive. Both are the implementation
of the WIPO Copyright Treaty that introduces the illegality of any
activities aiming to upgrade or upcycle devices by any means circumventing digital restrictions management.
</p>
<p>
The FSFE ever since highlights the importance of users individual
control over general purpose computing machines<a class="fn"
href="#fn26">26</a>, but given the vast amount of powerful general
purpose computing machines - called “Smartphones” for example - produced and
trashed every year<a class="fn" href="#fn2">27</a>, it is of
inevitable importance for a more sustainable use of our resources
to give third-parties and users full access to these computers and
let us use these machines for continued upcycling processes<a
class="fn" href="#fn28">28</a>. “Outdated” smartphones for example can
be used for other kinds of automated processes at home, at work or
in other surroundings. With the growing Internet of Things and
ever more connected devices we must act now to establish a more sustainable use of our resources and
devices.
</p>
<h3 id="open-interfaces-drivers-and-standards">Open interfaces, drivers, and standards</h3>
<p>
Manufacturers often try to support the marketing of their own
product family and prevent users from moving away from their
products by creating an artificial incompatibility of their
products with the products of other manufacturers. At the hardware
level, for example, many people know this from the incompatibility
of different charging cables - which politicians at the European
level at the time of writing are trying to address with new eco-design
criteria<a class="fn" href="#fn29">29</a>.
</p>
<p>
Similar dilemmas of incompatibility are also played out on the
software level, usually with using proprietary formats such as
the Microsoft Word Bnary File Format <em>.doc</em> for example. Proprietary formats
prevent other software applications from accessing the saved data.
Apart from hindering competition and innovation, such
proprietary formats <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#designing-a-resource-free-licenses-and-copyleft">let run short possible software solutions</a> within IT
environments. From a shortage of software solutions follows a
shortage of possible hardware solutions.
</p>
<p>
Incompatibilities worsen regarding the access to hardware, where
restrictions primarily happen by withholding the interfaces and
drivers. In contrast, <strong>an open provision of interfaces and drivers enables third-party manufacturers to assemble existing
hardware in a modular manner and to form complex infrastructures
under individual aspects and necessities.</strong> For example, it
would be possible to combine different hardware products and compile them
together with a focus on the overall efficiency or sufficiency instead of being
at the mercy of the manufacturers' monocultures and product
families.
</p>
<p>
The possibilities for assembling different hardware products and
families with each other in support of a more sustainable use of
hardware will become of ever more importance with the growth of the
Internet of Things. With an open access to interfaces and drivers,
also third-party providers would be enabled to offer services such
as repairs for existing hardware and thus further the sustainable
use and longer usage lifetime of hardware. That is why these
demands are also part of the demands for a universal <a
href="#repair">“right to repair”</a>.
</p>
<h3 id="public-money-public-code">Public infrastructure with public code!</h3>
<p>
As examined above, <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-and-it-infrastructures">Free Software serves the sustainability of IT
infrastructures</a>. Both in the possibility of conserving resources
through the <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#uninstallability-and-modularity">use of modular systems and the deinstallation of
modules</a> that are not required. As well as controlling the software
in use and building architectures without software obsolescence.
</p>
<p>
In today's society, IT-infrastructures power almost all
system-critical applications, from hospitals to public
administrations to local public transport. <strong>To
benefit from sustainable eco-systems surrounding Free Software concepts, a crucial
requirement is that software code that runs our everyday's and critical infrastructure is software
published under a Free Software license.</strong> Free Sofware is the solution to guarantee that critical infrastructures are not property and bound to the
design- and control-decisions of proprietary software developers
and their companys market strategy<a class="fn" href="#fn25">25</a>.
Similar thoughts are often addressed as <em>"digital sovereignty"</em></p>
<p>Much of our public digital infrastructure is paid with public funds.
The Free Software Foundation Europe launched the <a
href="https://publiccode.eu/">“Public Money? Public Code! ”</a>
campaign in 2017 that has since enjoyed great popularity around the world. The central message of the campaign is to create a legal basis that requires
that software developed with public funds for public
administrations is published under a Free Software and open source
license.</p>
<p>Our administrations and societies would benefit from sustainable infrastructures and software solutions. Software once developed could be used, customized and shared by other administrations. <a href="/freesoftware/sustainability/sustainability.html#free-software-enables-sustainable-ecosystems">Sustainable ecosystems around software solutions</a> could be established. </p> <strong>If it's public
money, the code should be public too!</strong>
</p>
<!--
<p>
Several administrations have meanwhile joined this demand, as well
as <a href="https://publiccode.eu/#organisations">over a hundred
@ -886,163 +1021,12 @@ Software enables sustainable ecosystems</h3>
More background and information on how you can support this goal
can be found at <a href="https://publiccode.eu/">publiccode.eu</a>
</p>
<h3 id="critical-infrastructures-only-with-free-software">Critical infrastructures only with free software</h3>
<p>
As stated above, Free Software serves the sustainability of IT
infrastructures. Both in the possibility of conserving resources
through the use of modular systems and the deinstallation of
modules that are not required. As well as controlling the software
in use and building architectures without software obsolescence.
</p>
<p>
In today's society, IT-infrastructures power almost all
system-critical applications, from hospitals to public
administrations to local public transport. <strong>In order to
create trust in these critical infrastructures, a crucial
requirement is that all software code that controls our devices is
published under a Free Software license.</strong> This is the only
way to guarantee that critical infrastructures are not bound to the
design- and control-decisions of proprietary software developers
and their companys strategy<a class="fn" href="#fn25">25</a>.
</p>
<h3 id="publication-of-source-code-under-a-free-license-after-the-end-of-support">Publication of source code under a free license after the end of support</h3>
<p>
As shown in this study, the use of Free Software is one way of
[escaping the dilemma of software obsolescence](anchor FIXME).
<strong>In order to fundamentally address this dilemma on a
political level, a frequent demand is the publication of the
underlying source code under a free license ("upcycling of
software") after the end of support for software applications or
any electronic device.</strong> Without any guarantee of being
picked up, such a practice would enable third parties to ensure the
continuation of the software and thus achieve a milestone against
forced software obsolescence.
</p>
<p>
But this is not only about the continuation of the software rather
it is about the continuation of the hardware: From Smartphones to
Smart Home devices to Cars to even not(-yet)-connected devices like
washing machines, toasters or other machines the access to the
source code of the software that is running the machine is critical
for any sort of maintenance operation, reuse or upcycling process
of that hardware. Without access to the source code only the
initial manufacturer and contracted service operators. Apart from
societal problems of creating monopolies, ecological problems
worsen latest with the end of support of such a device by the
initial manufacturer. Because in such a model of limited knowledge
access the end of initial support also means the end of a hardware
although the hardware is still functioning.
</p>
<p>
For a sustainable use of our hardware however, we need the owners
right to repair on their machines and the possibility for third
party service providers to get access to that machine. The enforced
publication of source code under a free license after the end of
the support thus is crucial in extending usage lifetime of
hardware.
</p>
<h3 id="right-to-use-alternative-operating-systems-and-software">Right to use alternative operating systems and software</h3>
<p>
Today's manufacturers of linear products mostly try to prevent the
installation of Free Software and alternative operating systems,
although - or precisely because - this can drastically extend the
usage lifetime of hardware and thus guarantee a more sustainable
use of our resources. In terms of digital sustainability, it is the
task of politics to prevent such linear business models. Both
technical measures (e.g. blocking the bootloader) and legal
measures (e.g. general terms and conditions and EULAs) that serve
to prevent the installation of alternative operating systems must
not be permitted. <strong>Users must have the right to install the
operating system of their choice on their own devices, as well as
any software. </strong>
</p>
<p>
In the past decades unfortunately, politics supported manufacturers
in locking down devices, thus supporting linear use of hardware.
The Digital Millenium Copyright Act is such an example as is the
European Information Society Directive. Both are the implementation
of the WIPO Copyright Treaty that includes criminialisation of any
activities aiming to circumvent digital restrictions management.
</p>
<p>
The FSFE ever since highlights the importance of users individual
control over general purpose computing machines<a class="fn"
href="#fn26">26</a>, but given the vast amount of powerful general
purpose computing machines called “Smartphones” produced and
obsoleted every year<a class="fn" href="#fn2">27</a>, it is of
inevitable importance for a more sustainable use of our resources
to give innovations and users full access to these computers and
let use them all these machines for upcycling processes<a
class="fn" href="#fn28">28</a>. This way “outdated” smartphones can
be used for all kinds of automated processes at home, at work or
any other surroundings. With the growing Internet of Things and
ever more connected devices this approach seems to become an
unavoidable step for a more sustainable use of our resources and
devices.
</p>
<h3 id="open-interfaces-drivers-and-standards">Open interfaces, drivers, and standards</h3>
<p>
Manufacturers often try to support the marketing of their own
product family and prevent users from moving away from their
products by creating an artificial incompatibility of their
products with the products of other manufacturers. At the hardware
level, for example, many people know this from the incompatibility
of different charging cables - which politicians at the European
level are now trying to address by using various eco-design
criteria<a class="fn" href="#fn29">29</a>.
</p>
<p>
Similar dilemmas of incompatibility are also played out on the
software level, usually with using proprietary formats such as
Microsoftss .doc or Adobes .psd. These proprietary formats
prevent other software applications from accessing the saved data.
And apart from hindering competition and innovation, such
proprietary formats let run short possible software solutions in IT
environments, and with a shortage of software solutions comes a
shortage of possible hardware solutions.
</p>
<p>
Incompatibilities worsen regarding the access to hardware, where
restrictions primarily happen by withholding the interfaces and
drivers. <strong>The open provision of interfaces and drivers
however would enable third-party manufacturers to assemble existing
hardware in a modular manner and to form complex infrastructures
under individual aspects and necessities.</strong> For example, it
would be possible to combine different hardware and compile them
together with a focus on efficiency or sufficiency instead of being
at the mercy of the manufacturers' monocultures and product
families.
</p>
<p>
The possibilities for assembling different hardware products and